Auto Glossary                                                    المصطلحات الفنية للسيارات

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Brakes, Control, (Department, Agency, Society, Association ...), Dimensions & Weights, Electricity & Electronics, Engine, Fuel, Ignition, Light, Racing, Safety, Sensors,  Steering, Substance, Suspension, Tire, Transmission, Units, Vehicle Types,

The degree symbol (°) is a typographical symbol that is used, among other things, to represent degrees of arc (e.g. in geographic coordinate systems), right angle = 90°, hours (in the medical field), degrees of temperature (°C, °F or °R), or diminished quality in musical harmony. The symbol consists of a small raised circle, historically a zero glyph Degree ° Units
هو رمز مطبعي يتم استخدامه, من بين الأمور الأخرى, لتمثيل درجات القوس (على سبيل المثل؛ نظام الخطوط الجغرافي), رمز لدرجات الزاويا,والساعة في مجال الطب, رمز لدرجات الحرارة, كم يستخدم في مجال النغم الموسيقي, يتكون الرمز من دائرة صغيرة مرفوعة, تاريخيا هي صورة رمزية للصفر درجة حرارة- درجة زاوية
A minute of arc (MOA), arcminute, or minute arc, is a unit of angular measurement equal to 1/60 of one degree. Because one degree is 1⁄360 of a circle, one minute of arc is 1⁄21,600 of a circle, or π⁄10,800 radians.It is used in fields that involve very small angles, such as astronomy, optometry, ophthalmology, optics, navigation, land surveying and marksmanship. An angle can be written as 65° 39′ 18″. ---In some cases, the foot is denoted by a prime, which is often marked by an apostrophe, and the inch by a double prime; for example, 2 feet 4 inches is sometimes denoted as 2′−4″, 2′ 4″ or 2′4″ Minute of arc -or- Foot ' Units
دقيقة درجة -أو- قدم
A second of arc (arcsecond, arcsec) is 1⁄60 of an arc minute, 1⁄3,600 of a degree, 1⁄1,296,000 of a circle, and π⁄648,000 (about 1⁄206,265) of a radian. An angle can be written as 65° 39′ 18″. To express even smaller angles, standard SI prefixes can be employed. In particular, the milliarcsecond, abbreviated mas, is commonly used in astronomy. ---In some cases, the inch is denoted by a double prime, which is often marked by double apostrophe, and the foot by a prime; for example, 2 feet 4 inches is sometimes denoted as 2′−4″, 2′ 4″ or 2′4″ Second of arc -or- Inch " Units
ثانية درجة -أو- بوصة
The term used describe a two-wheel drive vehicle. The "4" indicates the number of wheels of the vehicle and the "2" indicates the number of wheels that are driven by engine Four by two 4x2 Vehicle Types Transmission
هذا يدل على سيارات التي تدفع عن طريق عجلتين. الرقم "4" يدل على عدد العجلات بالسيارة, والعدد الثاني "2" يدل على عدد العجلات القائدة التي تدفع السيارة سيارات الدفع الثنائي
The term used describe a four-wheel drive vehicle. The first "4" indicates the number of wheels of the vehicle and the second "4" indicates the number of wheels that are driven by engine. Most 4x4 drivetrains have a transfer case that allows the driver to select either two(4x2)- or four-wheel drive (4x4) depending on driving conditions. In trucks, you’ll often find locking hubs on the front wheels that can be locked in the "on" or free-wheeling position as needed. Some performance cars have full-time variable four-wheel drive and use a computer-controlled transfer case to route power between the wheels Four by four 4x4 Vehicle Types Transmission
دفع عجلتين ويمكن تحويلها إلى أربع عجلات دفع. الرقم الأول "4" يدل على عدد العجلات بالسيارة والثاني "4" يدل على عدد العجلات التي تدار من المحرك سيارات الدفع الرباعي
The 1991-92 systems are unique in that they used 4 wheel speed sensors (one located at each wheel) while the other systems use the Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) signal for rear wheel speed 4 Wheel Anti Lock brake 4WAL Brakes
هذا النظام يستخدم 4 حساسات عجل (حساس لكل عجلة) بدلاً من حساس واحد مركب للعجل الخلفي نظام منع غلق العجلات يعمل على الأربع عجلات
4WD is a system in which the engine's power is (or can be) transmitted to all four wheels. In a Four Wheel Drive system, a secondary transmission assembly, called a transfer case, is driven from the main transmission. The transfer case distributes power to both axles to drive all four wheels. Four-Wheel Drive can be full-time, in which power is delivered to both axles at all times or part-time, where the driver selects two or four wheel drive Four-wheel drive 4WD Vehicle Types Transmission
إنه نوع من الأنظمة يعمل على توصل قدرة المحرك إلى الأربع عجلات, عن طريق وحدة نقل (صندوق تروس إضافي) ذات تخفضين و محورين دفع. الوظيفة الأساسية لوحدة النقل هي توفير نسبة تخفيض عالية للأربع عجلات لظروف التشغيل الصعبة (صعود مطلع/ نزول منحدر ذو زاوية حادة, تراكم ثلوج عالية على الطريق أو طرق وحلية أو طرق وعرة). أو نسبة تخفيض عادية للظروف التشغيل العادية. الميزة لاستخدام هذا النظام هو زيادة قوة الجر, ويحسن من أتزان السيارة على الطريق. ويعيب هذا النظام بأن استهلاك الوقود أعلى من حالة الدفع الأمامي أو الدفع الخلفي المنفصل للسيارة سيارات الدفع الرباعي
It is a trucking rig consisting of a tractor and a trailer and typically having eighteen wheels. From the total number of wheels: two front steering wheels (2) on the tractor, plus dual wheels on each end of two axles (total of 8) at the rear of the tractor and supporting the front of the trailer, plus dual wheels on two axles at the rear of the trailer (total of 8). The total sum = (2+ 8) wheels for the tractor + (8) wheels for the trailer = 18 wheels Eighteen–wheeler truck 18wheeler Vehicle Types
هي مجموعة شحن تتكون من جرار/ القاطرة ومقطورة, مجموع العجلات بها ثمانية عشر عجلة. يحتوي العدد الكلي للعجلات: (الجرار) أثنان لتوجيه العجلات الأمامية (2 عجلة) بمقدمة الجرار, بالإضافة إلى عجلات مزدوجة على كل نهاية من المحوريين الخلفيين للجرار (8 عجلات) موجودين بخلفية الجرار ويحملوا الجزء الأمامي من المقطورة, بالإضافة إلى عجلات مزدوجة على المحوريين الخلفين بالمقطورة (8 عجلات), ليصبح المجموع الإجمالي (2+8 للجرار + 8 للمقطورة = 18) عجلة شاحنة ذات 18 عجلة
Unit of measuring the electric current Ampere A Electronics Units
وحدة قياس شدة التيار أمبير
A system that cools and dehumidifies air entering the passenger compartment. The system uses a refrigerant to cool the air and carry heat away from the passenger compartment. Major system components include a compressor, condenser, evaporator, accumulator or receiver/dryer, and orifice tube or expansion valve Air Conditioner A/C
هو نظام للتكييف والتخلص من الرطوبة للهواء الداخل لكابينة السيارة. يستخدم النظام مادة مبردة لتبريد الهواء ونقل الحرارة بعيد عن كابينة السيارة. الأجزاء الرئيسية بالنظام تتضمن الضاغط, المكثف, المبخر, المجمع (الخزان/ المجفف), صمام تمدد المكيف
Also AFR, is the mass ratio of air to fuel present in an internal combustion engine. If exactly enough air is provided to completely burn all of the fuel, the ratio is known as the stoichiometric mixture, often abbreviated to stoich. AFR is an important measure for anti-pollution and performance-tuning reasons. The lower the ratio, the "richer" the mixture Contents Air fuel ratio A/F Fuel
هو نظام للتكييف والتخلص من الرطوبة للهواء الداخل لكابينة السيارة. يستخدم النظام مادة مبردة لتبريد الهواء ونقل الحرارة بعيد عن كابينة السيارة. الأجزاء الرئيسية بالنظام تتضمن الضاغط, المكثف, المبخر, المجمع (الخزان/ المجفف), صمام تمدد المكيف
A British motoring association Automobile Association AA Dept
جمعية السيارات البريطانية جمعية السيارات
AAA (the American Automobile Association, Inc.) is not-for-profit organization. AAA provides certain standard services to its own members, It is providing emergency roadside assistance to its members, also AAA operates travel agencies and publishes maps and travel guides, and other services as well American Automobile Association AAA Dept
(جمعية السيارات الأمريكية) هي منظمة غير ربحية. والتي توفر العديد من الخدمات لأعضائها, مثل المساعدة في حالة أعطال الطريق, توفير احتياجات الأعضاء خلال السفر بالسيارة, مثل توفير الخرائط, والمساعدة من خلال وكالات الرحلات الخاصة بالجمعية بالإضافة إلى خدمات أخرى عديدة جمعية السيارات الأمريكية
It is a nonprofit, nonpartisan association representing highway and transportation departments in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. It represents all five transportation modes: air, highways, public transportation, rail, and water. Its primary goal is to foster the development, operation, and maintenance of an integrated national transportation system American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials AASHTO Dept
هي جمعية غير ربحية, تمثل إدارات النقل والطرق السريعة في الولايات الـ 50, ومقاطعة كولومبيا, وبورتوريكو. انها تمثل جميع وسائط النقل الخمس: الهواء, والطرق السريعة, والنقل العام, والسكك الحديدية, والماء. الهدف الرئيسي منها هو تعزيز التنمية والتشغيل والصيانة لنظام نقل وطني متكامل الجمعية الأمريكية لإدارات الطرق السريعة والنقل للولايات
ABC is the Mercedes-Benz brand name used to describe fully active suspension, that allows control of the vehicle body motions and therefore virtually eliminates body roll in many driving situations including cornering, accelerating, and braking Active Body Control ABC Control
هو أسم خاص بشركة مرسيدس بنز لوصف نظام التحكم الفعال الكلي للتعليق, الذي يتحكم في حركة جسم المركبة ويعمل على التخلص من انقلاب المركبة في حالات عديدة للقيادة مثل التحويد, والتعجيل, والفرامل التحكم الإيجابي في جسم السيارة
An anti-lock braking system (ABS) (translated from German, Antiblockiersystem) is a system on motor vehicles which prevents the wheels from locking while braking. The purpose of this is to allow the driver to prevent loss of car control (car spin), maintain steering control, under heavy braking and, in some situations, to shorten braking distances. Since it came into widespread use in production cars (with "version 2" in 1978), ABS has made considerable progress. Recent versions not only handle the ABS function itself (i.e. preventing wheel locking) but also traction control (TCS), brake assist (BAS), and electronic stability control (ESP), amongst others. Not only that, but its version 8.0 system now weighs less than 1.5 kilograms, compared with 6.3 kg of version 2.0 in 1978 Antilock braking system ABS Brakes Electronics
نظام منع غلق العجلات, هو نظام يستخدم في السيارات لمنع غلق العجلات (التوقف عن الدوران والزحف) إثناء الفرامل/ الكبح. الغرض منه هو الاحتفاظ باتزان السيارة (عدم دورانها) مع السماح للسائق للتمكن من التوجيه عند استخدام الفرملة بقوة, وتقليل مسافة الفرملة في بعض الحالات. منذ ان دخل النظام في حيز الاستخدام على نطاق واسع بالسيارات (الإصدار 2.0 في 1978), حقق النظام تقدما كبيرا, فالنظام الأن لا يستخدم فقط في منع غلق العجلات ولكنه أيضا يعمل مع نظم مختلفة بالسيارة, كنظام التحكم في الجر, ونظام مساعدة الفرامل, ونظام التحكم الإليكتروني في الاتزان, بالإضافة إلى استخدامات أخرى. كما أن الإصدار الأخير للنظام (الإصدار 8.0) يتميز بأن وزنه أقل من 1.5 كجم مقارنة بالإصدار رقم 2.0 الذي كان يزن 6.3 كجم. نظام منع غلق العجلات
Electric current that reverses direction periodically, usually many times per second. One complete period, with current flow first in one direction and then in the other, is called a cycle, and 60 cycles per second (60 hertz) is the customary frequency of alternation in the United States and in all of North America. In Europe and in many other parts of the world, 50 Hz is the standard frequency. On aircraft a higher frequency, often 400 Hz, is used to make possible lighter electrical machines Alternating Current AC Electronics
تيار يعكس اتجاهه بشكل دوري, عدة مرات بالثانية الواحدة. زمن الدورة, التيار يسير في اتجاه ثم يعكس حركته في الاتجاه الأخرى يسمى دورة. 60 دورة في الثانية (60 هرتز) هو تردد التيار في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية وأمريكا الشمالية. وبالنسبة لأوربا فإن تردد التيار (50 هرتز). تستخدم الطائرات أجهزة ومعدات تردد التيار لها 400 هرتز, ليمكنها ذلك من استخدام أجهزة ومعدات أقل وزنا تيار متردد
The system goes under many other names as intelligent cruise control (ICC), and (ACC) for autonomous or active cruise control , also radar cruise control system. It is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles, that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. The control is imposed based on sensor information from on-board sensors only. A radar sensor is linked to the ECU which slows the vehicle and brakes if necessary Adaptive Cruise Control ACC (1 Control
وهو يأتي تحت مسميات عدة حسب الشركة الصانعة كالتحكم الفعال في سرعة السير, التحكم الذكي في سرعة السير, ونظام التحكم بالرادار في سرعة السير, وهو من الانظمة الاختيارية للتحكم في السيارة, الذي يقوم ذاتيا بضبط سرعة السيارة للإبقاء على مسافة أمنة بين السيارة والسيارة التي أمامها. يقوم التحكم بالعمل عن طريق معلومات من حساس مركب بالسيارة. وهو عبارة عن حساس يعمل بالرادار متصل بوحدة التحكم الإليكترونية بالسيارة والتي تقوم بإبطاء السيارة وإيقافها عند الضرورة دون تدخل السائق. مثبت السرعة المتوائم (المتحكم في سرعة السير القابل للتكيف)
It is an air-conditioning unit which can automatically set the temperature desired by the driver without being influenced by the outside temperature or other factors Automatic Climate Control ACC (2 Control
هي وحدة تكييف تقوم ذاتيا بضبط الحرارة المطلوبة من السائق دون التأثر بدرجة الحرارة الخارجية أو أي عوامل أخرى تحكم ذاتي للمناخ
It consists of a camera installed in the cockpit to monitor the driver’s blinking movements. The development of this system is aimed at eliminating the risk of driver inattentiveness, by constantly keeping track of the frequency and duration of eyelid movement. If the computer connected to the camera perceives the driver to be at risk of sleepiness at the wheel, the system can warn him ahead of time Attention Control System ACS Control
هو نظام يتكون من آلة تصوير مركبة داخل السيارة لملاحظة حركة جفون السائق. تم تطوير هذا النظام للتغلب على المخاطر الناجمة من عدم يقظة السائق, وذلك عن طريق استمرارية ملاحظة معدل التردد والفترة الزمنية المستغرقة لحركة الجفون. وفي حالة توصل الحاسب المتصل بآلة التصوير إلى أن السائق معرض لخطر النوم أثناء القيادة, يقوم النظام بتحذير السائق بوقت كافي قبل أن يغفو في النوم نظام متابعة يقظة السائق
Also caled Manifold Air Temperature (MAT) sensors, and Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensors. The ACT measures air temperature through changing resistance and sends this information to the onboard computer. The computer uses this and other inputs to calculate the correct amount of fuel delivered Air Charge Temperature (sensor ACT Sensors
ويطلق عليه أيضا حساس درجة حرارة مجمع الهواء, وحساس درجة حرارة مدخل الهواء. ويقيس درجة حرارة الهواء عن طريق تغيير المقاومة ويقوم بإرسال تلك المعلومات إلى حاسب السيارة. يوقوم الحاسب باستخدام تلك المعلومات ومعلومات من حساسات أخرى لحساب كمية الهواء المطلوبة درجة حرارة شحنة الهواء(حساس)
The airbag control unit detects and evaluates a crash, before triggering the appropriate restraint systems according to the type of collision and its severity Airbag Control Unit ACU (1 Control
وحدة التحكم في الوسادة الهوائية, تقوم بتقدير و تقييم الحادثة, قبل أن تطلق نظم التثبيت/ تحجيم الحركة بناء على نوع التصادم ومقدار شدته وحدة التحكم في الوسادة الهوائية
The Auto-Cycle Union (ACU) is the governing body of motorcycle sport in Great Britain, including the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man. The ACU also governs the safety standards for personal protection equipment worn during racing Auto-Cycle Union ACU (2 Dept Racing
هي الهيئة الحاكمة للرياضة الدراجات النارية في بريطانيا العظمى، بما في ذلك جزر القنال وجزيرة مان. أيضا يحكم الاتحاد معايير السلامة لمعدات الحماية الشخصية يرتديها خلال سباق اتحاد سباق الدرجات النارية
An anticlockwise (ACW), or counterclockwise (CCW) motion is one that proceeds in the opposite rotational direction of clock's hands Anticlockwise ACW
هي حركة دورانية في اتجاه عكس دوران عقارب الساعة عكس دوران عقارب الساعة
ADAS, are systems to help the driver in the driving process. They are primarily focused on collision avoidance technologies;for example, lane departure warning (LDW) and blind-spot detection (BSD) and driver aids, such as night vision, driver alertness, traffic sign recognition (TSR), adaptive cruise control (ACC) and more Advanced Driver Assistance Systems ADAS Safety
هي أنظمة مركبة بالسيارة لمساعدة السائق في عملية القيادة. وهي تركز بشكل أساسي على تقنية منع الحوادث مثل التحذير عند تغيير المسار, بيان المناطق غير المرئية للسائق. وكذلك على تقنية مساعدة السائق مثل نظام الرؤية الليلية, نظام التأكد من تنبه السائق, نظام التعرف على الإشارات المرورية, ونظام مثبت السرعة التفاعلي, وأنظمة أخرى الأنظمة المتقدمة لمساعدة السائق
It is an autonomous road vehicle safety system which employs sensors to monitor the proximity of vehicles in front and detects situations where the relative speed and distance between the host and target vehicles suggest that a collision is imminent. In such a situation, emergency braking can be automatically applied to avoid the collision or at least to mitigate its effects. See Also ABES Autonomous Emergency Braking AEB Control Brakes
هو نظام يعمل على سلامة المركبة, يستخدم أجهزة استشعار (حساسات) لقياس القرب من المركبة أو الاجسام الموجودة أمام السيارة ويقوم بتوقع الحالات التي تكون المسافة النسبية والمسافة بين السيارة والجسم أمامها مؤدية إلى تصادم وشيك. في هذه الحالة يقوم نظام فرامل الطوارئ تلقائيا بفرملة السيارة لتجنب الاصطدام أو على الأقل التخفيف من أثاره. أنظر أيضا نظام فرامل الطوارئ المتقدم فرامل الطوارئ الذاتية
It is an autonomous road vehicle safety system which employs sensors to monitor the proximity of vehicles in front and detects situations where the relative speed and distance between the host and target vehicles suggest that a collision is imminent. In such a situation, emergency braking can be automatically applied to avoid the collision or at least to mitigate its effects. See Also ABE Advanced Emergency Braking System AEBS Control Brakes
هو نظام يعمل على سلامة المركبة, يستخدم أجهزة استشعار (حساسات) لقياس القرب من المركبة أو الاجسام الموجودة أمام السيارة ويقوم بتوقع الحالات التي تكون المسافة النسبية والمسافة بين السيارة والجسم أمامها مؤدية إلى تصادم وشيك. في هذه الحالة يقوم نظام فرامل الطوارئ تلقائيا بفرملة السيارة لتجنب الاصطدام أو على الأقل التخفيف من أثاره. أنظر أيضا فرامل الطوارئ الذاتية نظام فرامل الطوارئ المتقدم
It allows drivers to see better at night around curves in the road, it is also abbreviated as AFS Adaptive Front Lighting System AFLS Light
يقوم نظام تكييف الإضاءة, بالضبط الذاتي لشعاع المصابيح الأمامية, وتوفير أفضل رؤية حسب حالة الأحوال الجوية وحالة الطريق. النظام يقوم بعمل العديد من المهام منها توجيه الشعاع المنخفض في وحدات المصابيح الأمامية وفقا لزاوية عجلة القيادة وسرعة السيارة. كما يعمل على عدم إبهار السيارات القادمة في الاتجاه المعاكس, وزيادة مجال الرؤية الجانبي. نظام الإضاءة الأمامي الموائم
The majority of vehicles on the road today are equipped with a mass air flow sensor (MAF), also commonly referred to as an air flow meter (AFM). It is a device that measures the amount of air entering the engine and supplies this information to the engine control unit (ECU) to precisely control the engine’s air / fuel ratio Air Flow Meter AFM Sensors Fuel
معظم السيارات التي تسير على الطرق اليوم مجهزة بحساس لقياس مقدار تدفق الهواءMAF , والذي يطلق عليه مقياس تدفق الهواءAFM . وهو جهاز يقيس مقدار الهواء الداخل للمحرك ويوفر تلك المعلومة لوحدة تحكم المحرك ECU للتحكم بدقة في نسبة الهواء للوقود A/F ratio مقياس إنسياب الهواء
AFS actually changes the steering ratio (the number of turns of the steering wheel required to turn the road wheels from lock to lock) while you drive. AFS can intervene in an instant to provide a correction if the rear end starts to break away. AFS is different than variable assist power steering, which only varies the amount of effort, not the actual steering ratio. AFS works with Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) to prevent a skid. When the yaw sensors detect an oversteer situation (the back end beginning to step out), it clicks in a few degrees of opposite lock Active Front Steering AFS (1 Steering
هو نظام يقوم بتغير نسبة تخفيض التوجيه (عدد دورات عجلة القيادة التي تطلب توجيه العجلة من أقصى اليسار إلى أقصى اليمين) عند السواقة. ويقوم بالتدخل في الحال لتقديم تصحيح في حالة أن الجزء الخلفي للسيارة بدأ في الانزلاق. هذا النظام يختلف عن نظام التوجيه المتغير المؤازرة, الذي يقوم فقط بتغيير مقدار الجهد وليس نسبة التوجيه الفعلي. يعمل النظام مع نظام التحكم الديناميكي للاتزان لمنع الانزلاق. عندما يكتشف حساس الدوران حالة توجيه زائد يقوم بالتعديل بعدة درجات في الاتجاه المعاكس. التوجيه الأمامي الإيجابي
The AFS controls the aiming direction and lighting distribution of the low beams according to the amount of turn applied to the steering wheel during cornering or turning to improve visibility Adaptive Front Lighting System AFS (2 Light
يقوم النظام بالتحكم ذاتيا في توجيه اتجاه الإضاءة وتوزيعها للشعاع المنخفض حسب مقدار دوران عجلة القيادة خلال الانعطاف أو الدوران لتحسين الرؤيا نظام ضبط الأنوار الأمامية
A vehicle designed to operate solely on an alternative fuel other than "traditional" petroleum fuels (petrol or diesel) or flexible-fuel, or dual-fuel vehicle designed to operate on at least one alternative fuel Alternative Fuel Vehicle AFV Vehicle Types
هي مركبة تعمل فقط بوقود غير الوقود البترولي التقليدي (بنزين أو ديزل)؛ أو تكون مرنة الوقود (تعمل بخليط من نوعي وقود), أو أن تكون مركبة ثنائية لمصدر الطاقة مصممة لتعمل بنوع واحد او أكثر من الوقود البديل مركبة مسيرة بوقود بديل
It has been considered as one option to increase fuel economy by reducing vehicle drag resistance. An AGS system will allow airflow through the grille when demand on cooling system or air conditioning system is high. Under conditions of light load and moderate ambient temperatures and humidity, the grille does not have to be fully open Active Grille Shutter AGS Control
هو واحد من الاختيارات المطروحة لزيادة اقتصاديات الوقود عن طريق تقليل مقاومة الهواء. يسمح المصرع بتدفق الهواء خلال الشبكة الأماميةعند تكون الحاجة إلى تبريد السيارة أو نظام التكييف عالية, في حالة الأحمال الجزئية وحرارة الجو والرطوبة المنخفضة فلا تكون هناك حاجة لفتح المصرع بشكل كامل مصرع (شيش, حصيرة) الشبكة الأمامية الفعال
The automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has broadened during the late 20th century and they are no longer restricted to industrial environments Automated Guided Vehicle AGV Vehicle Types
المركبة ذاتية التوجيه, هي ماكينة ذاتية الحركة متنقلة والتي تتبع علامات أو أسلاك موجودة بأرضية المكان, أو تستخدم الليزر أو الرؤية في تحديد مسارها, وهي في العادة تستخدم في التطبيقات الصناعية لنقل المواد بين الأقسام الإنتاجية أو المخازن. تم تطوير المركبات الذاتية وأنتشر مجال استخدامهم خلال القرن الماضي وأصبح استخدمهم غير محصور للتطبيقات الصناعية مركبة ذاتية التوجيه
An ampere-hour or amp-hour (symbol Ah, AHr, A·h, A h) is a unit of electric charge. One ampere-hour is equal to 3600 coulombs. Also it is a unit of electrical capacity. Tells you how much power the battery will store. Current multiplied by time in hours equals ampere-hours. A current of one amp for one hour would be one amp-hour; a current of 3 amps for 5 hours would be 15 AH CRLF. Ampere-Hour rating: is the amount of steady current that a fully charged battery can supply for 20 hours at 26.7oC without the cell voltage falling below 1.75 volts or 10.5 volts at terminals. Ampere-Hour Ah Electronics Units
وحدة الشحنة الكهربائية وتساوي 3600 كولوم, وكذلك هي وحدة قياس السعة الكهربائية. تقيس مقدار الطاقة التي يمكن للبطارية أن تختزنها. التيار مضروب في الوقت بالساعة. تيار مقداره 1 أمبير لمدة ساعة يكون 1 أمبير- ساعة. تيار مقداره 3 أمبير لمدة 5 ساعات يساوي 15 أمبير- ساعة. معدل الأمبير- ساعة: هو مقدار التيار الخارج من البطارية المشحونة بالكامل بمعدل ثابت لمدة 20 ساعة عند درجة حرارة 26.7 درجة مئوية بدون أن يهبط جهد الخلية عن 1.75 فولت أو جهد البطارية عن 10.5 فولت. أمبير- ساعة
Allows the driver to vary the ride height, giving the running ground clearance needed to suit off-road driving (increased height) and ease of entry (decreased height).The system exist under many trade names, including Electronic Height Control (EHC), Variable Ride-Height Suspension (VRHS), and pneumatic suspension systems Active Height Control AHC Control Suspension
النظام يسمح للسائق لتغيير ارتفاع السيارة بزيادة ارتفاع السيارة, زيادة الخلوص الأرضي لتناسب السير في خارج الطرق, وتقليل الارتفاع لسهولة ركوب السيارة. النظام موجود بالعديد من السيارات أيضا تحت أسماء مختلفة مثل نظام التحكم الإليكتروني في الارتفاع, نظام التعليق متغير الارتفاع, والنظام الهوائي للتعليق التحكم الفعال (الإيجابي) في الارتفاع
Advanced high-strength steel vehicle structure are helping to save lives of occcupants involved in crashes. These steels are being developed for automotive applications, they have the potential to effect cost and weight savings while improving performance Advanced High-Strength Steel AHSS Substance
الصلب المتقدم عالي القوة لهيكل السيارة يساعد على انقاذ الأرواح الناجمة من حوادث السيارات. هذا الصلب تم تطويره لتطبيقات السيارات, له ميزة توفير التكلفة والوزن, وفي نفس الوقت, يحسن الأداء صلب متطور عالي المقاومة
Air injection into the exhaust port allows the unburnt and partially burnt fuel to be completely combusted in the exhaust system. This system sometimes called an after-burner and it operates when the engine is slow-running or cruising Air Injection AI Fuel
حقن الهواء في فتحة العادم حتى يسمح للغازات الغير محترقة والوقود المحترق جزئي بأن يحترق كليا داخل نظام العادم. هذا النظام يطلق عليه نظام الحرق اللاحق للغازات, وهو يعمل عندمايبطئ المحرك من سرعته أو خلال السير بسرعة بطيئة. حقن الهواء
It is a metal. It is a silvery white, soft, ductile metal. Aluminium is remarkable for the metal's low density and for its ability to resist corrosion due to the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are important in areas of transportation and structural materials Aluminium (Aluminum Al Substance
الالومنيوم معدن: أبيض فضي،, لين، من المعادن القابلة للسحب, ذو كثافة منخفضة, وله قدرة على مقاومة الأكسدة. الألمنيوم وسبائكه يستخدم بشكل كبير في مجالات مركبات ومعدات النقل والمواد الإنشائية. الومنيوم
Seatbelt function that makes it possible to secure a child seat by pulling the shoulder belt all the way out then allowing it to retract to the desired length, then pressing down firmly on the child seat as the belt retracts to buckle the child seat securely in place Automatic Locking Retractor ALR Safety
هي وظيفة من وظائف حزام المقعد لتثبيت مقعد الطفل, عن طريق حزام الكتف, وذلك بجذبه للخارج لأخر المدى ثم السماح له بالتراجع للطول المطلوب, ثم يضغط على المقعد لتثبيته في مكانه جاذب الغلق الذاتي
Also known as automanual, semi-automatic transmission (SAT), clutchless manual transmission, flappy-paddle gearbox, or paddle-shift gearbox is an automobile transmission that does not change gears automatically, but rather facilitates manual gear changes by dispensing with the need to press a clutch pedal at the same time as changing gears Automated Manual Transmission AMT Transmission
وهو يعرف أيضا باسم اليدوي الذاتي, أو ناقل الحركة شبه ذاتي, أو ناقل الحركة اليدوي بدون قابض, أو صندوق التروس بالبدال: الذي هو ناقل حركة للسيارة الذي لا يقوم بتغير النقلات ذاتيا, ولكنه يسهل عملية النقل اليدوي عن طريق الاستغناء عن الحاجة للضغط على دواسة/ بدال القابض في نفس الوقت للقيام بتغيير النقلات ناقل الحركة اليدوي الألي
Also known as noise cancellation, or active noise reduction (ANR), is a method for reducing unwanted sound. A noise-cancellation speaker emits a sound wave with the same amplitude but with inverted phase to the original sound. The waves combine to form a new wave, in a process called interference, and effectively cancel each other out - an effect which is called phase cancellation Active Noise Control ANC Control
والذي يعرف أيضا بإلغاء الضوضاء, أو الطريقة الفعالة لتقليل الضوضاء, التي هي طريقة للتخلص من الأصوات الغير مرغوب به. تستخدم سماعة إلغاء الضوضاء, التي تبعث موجة صوت بنفس قيمة (الصوت الغير مرغوب به) ولكن مع موجة صوتية معكوسة الإشارة للصوت الأصلي. تجميع الموجتين يؤدي إلى تكون موجة جديد, في عملية تعرف بالتداخل, التي تقوم بشكل فعال بأن تلغي الموجة الأصلية والمرسلة بعضها البعض. التحكم الايجابي في الضوضاء
Also known as noise cancellation, or active noise control (ANC), is a method for reducing unwanted sound. A noise-cancellation speaker emits a sound wave with the same amplitude but with inverted phase to the original sound. The waves combine to form a new wave, in a process called interference, and effectively cancel each other out - an effect which is called phase cancellation Active Noise Reduction ANR Control
والذي يعرف أيضا بإلغاء الضوضاء, أو التحكم الإيجابي في الضوضاء, التي هي طريقة للتخلص من الأصوات الغير مرغوب به. تستخدم سماعة إلغاء الضوضاء, التي تبعث موجة صوت بنفس قيمة (الصوت الغير مرغوب به) ولكن مع موجة صوتية معكوسة الإشارة للصوت الأصلي. تجميع الموجتين يؤدي إلى تكون موجة جديد, في عملية تعرف بالتداخل, التي تقوم بشكل فعال بأن تلغي الموجة الأصلية والمرسلة بعضها البعض. الإلغاء الايجابي للضوضاء
It is a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards for products, services, processes, systems, and personnel in the United States American National Standards Institute ANSI Dept
هي منظمة خاصة غير ربحية تشرف على وضع معايير التوافق الطوعية للمنتجات والخدمات والعمليات والنظم، والعاملين في الولايات المتحدة المعهد الأمريكي القومي للمواصفات القياسية
It is the largest U.S trade association for the oil and natural gas industry. API standards and regulations apply to many segments of the oil and gas industry, its standards cover: environmental and safety, inspection measurement, petroleum measurement, exploration and production, and refining, among other things American Petroleum Institute API Dept
هو أحدى أكير الوكالات الأمريكية لتجارة البترول والغاز الطبيعي. لها العديد من الإجراءات المنظمة والمواصفات القياسية المتعلقة بالعديد من صناعة البترول والغاز, مواصفاتها القياسية تغطي: البيئة والسلامة, قياسات الفحص, قياسات البترول, التنقيب عن البترول والانتاج, والتكرير, وأشياء أخرى المعهد الأمريكي للبترول
Accelerator Pedal Position (APP) sensor indicates position of the accelerator pedal on vehicles models with electronice throttle control. The accelerator pedal sensor (APS) is basically throttle position sensor (TPS) with pedal attached Accelerator Pedal Position APP Sensors
وضع بدال التعجيل
It is basically throttle position sensor (TPS) with pedal attached. It indicates position of the accelerator pedal (gas pedal) on vehicles models with electronice throttle control Accelerator Pedal Sensor APS -1 Sensors
حساس وضع بدال التعجيل
It also called Automated parking facility (APF), Automated vehicle storage and retrieval system (AVSRS), Mechanical parking, and or Robotic parking garage. It is a mechanical system designed to minimize the area and/or volume required for parking cars. Like a multi-story parking garage, an APS provides parking for cars on multiple levels stacked vertically to maximize the number of parking spaces while minimizing land usage Automated Parking System APS -2 Control
نظام ركن السيارات الآلي
On uneven or slippery road surfaces the Automatic Stability Control (ASC) system ensures the car can accelerate out of each bend safely and with maximum traction. It is an element of the Dynamic Stability Control (DSC) system. It prevents loss of traction on the drive wheels, when one wheel has good traction but the other is on a slippery patch of road, the wheel with less traction is braked until it is again able to gain a grip on the road surface. If both wheels lose traction, the engine management system also intervenes and reduces the power output, which significantly reduces the danger of the rear of the vehicle skidding out. Drivers can disengage ASC if desired Automatic Stability Control ASC Control
يضمن نظام التحكم في الاتزان التلقائي/ الذاتي للسيارة بالتسارع عند السير على الأسطح الغير مستوية أو الزلقة عند كل منعطف بأمان مع أقصى قدرة جر متاحة. النظام هو واحد من عناصر نظام التحكم الديناميكي في الاتزان. يعمل النظام على عدم فقد قوة الجر للعجلات القائدة, فعندما تكون لأحدى العجلات تلاصق جيد, والأخرى على أرضية زلقة من الطريق, يقوم النظام بفرملة العجلة التي لها تلاصق أقل حتى تكون قادرة مرة أخرى للتماسك مع الطريق. وفي حالة فقد التلاصق للعجلتين, فإن نظام إدارة المحرك يتدخل ويعمل على تقليل خرج قدرة المحرك, وهو ما يقلل بشكل كبير من خطر انزلاق العجل الخلفي للخارج. النظام اختياري ويمكن للسائق فك الارتباط معه في حالة رغبته في ذلك. النظام الذاتي للتحكم في الاتزان
It is a professional certification group that certifies professionals in the automotive repair and service industry Automotive Service Excellence ASE Dept
هي رابطة لإعطاء شهادة مزاولة المهنة للمتخصصين في مجال إصلاح وصيانة السيارت رابطة تميز الخدمة للسيارات
It is a professional association. ASME is thus an engineering society, a standards organization, a research and development organization, a lobbying organization, a provider of training and education, and a nonprofit organization American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASME Dept
هي جمعية مهنية هندسية غير ربحية, وهيئة لوضع المواصفات والمقاييس, ومنظمة بحثية, وتعمل في مجال التدريب والتعليم. الجمعية الأمريكية لمهندسي الميكانيكا
Integrated with AWD and the active damping system Jaguar's Adaptive Surface Response employs algorithms for road-surface-texture detection and uses the information to modify steering response, traction shifting, throttle response, and stability control operation Adaptive Surface Response ASR (1 Control
الاستجابة المتكيفة للسطح
Anti Slip Regulation, Acceleration Slip Regulation, Automatic Slip Regulation. Also called Traction Control System- TCS. It is designed to prevent loss of traction of driven road wheels Anti Slip Regulation ASR (2 Control
التحكم في الانزلاق الناتج عن التسارع
Some vehicles can be classified as AT-PZEV, standing for Advanced Technology PZEV. This type of vehicle is just as clean as a PZEV vehicle, but gets much better fuel efficiency due to the use of hybrid electric vehicle systems. This technology can also be used in a Sport Utility Vehicle to improve their traditionally lower fuel economy; however they may still lag behind the efficiency of smaller vehicle Advanced Technology- Partial Zero Emission Vehicle AT-PZEV Vehicle Types
تقنية متقدمة- مركبة ذات أنبعاثات عادم قرب الصفر
It is founded in 1933, is the largest national trade association for the trucking industry. ATA represents more than 37,000 members covering every type of motor carrier in the United States. According to the ATA's mission statement, their goals are "to serve and represent the interests of the trucking industry with one united voice; to influence in a positive manner federal and state governmental actions; to advance the trucking industry's image, efficiency, competitiveness, and profitability; to provide educational programs and industry research; to promote safety and security on the nation's highways and among drivers; and to strive for a healthy business environment." The Americans Trucking Associations represent the interests of trucking company owners, not United States citizen truck drivers. Truck Drivers are represented by the Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association American Trucking Association ATA (1 Dept
الجمعية الأمريكية للنقل بالشاحنات
It is a trade qualification for all facets of automotive repair in the UK. ATA is a national voluntary scheme which tests the current competence of individuals working in the retail motor industry, who are committed to an ethical code of conduc Automotive Technician Accreditation ATA (2 Dept
هو المؤهل التجاري لجميع جوانب إصلاح السيارات في المملكة المتحدة رابطة فنين السيارات
A crash test dummy is a full-scale anthropomorphic test device (ATD) that simulates the dimensions, weight proportions and articulation of the human body, and is usually instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in simulated vehicle impacts. This data can include variables such as velocity of impact, crushing force, bending, folding, or torque of the body, and deceleration rates during a collision for use in crash tests Anthropomorphic Test Device ATD
جهاز مجسم اختبار- دمية اختبار الصدم
It is the fluid used in vehicles with self-shifting or automatic transmissions. Synthetic ATF is available on aftermarket brands, for certain applications Automatic transmission fluid ATF Transmission
هو نوع خاص من الزيوت يستخدم في المركبات التي يتم فيها نقل الحركة ذاتيا. هناك نوع اصطناعي للاستخدام في ظروف معينة سائل ناقل الحركة الأوتوماتيكي
It is an automatic tire inflation system (ATIS) that keeps tires properly inflated. ATIS uses compressed air from the trailer air system to inflate any tire that falls below a pre-set pressure when the trailer is moving. The system increases tire life, fuel efficiency and safety Automatic Tire Inflation System ATIS Tire
هو نظام ذاتي لنفخ الإطار الذي يجعل الإطارات في حالة نفخ جيدة. وهذا النظام يستخدم الهواء المتواجد بنظام الهواء بالمقطورة لنفخ أي إطار ينخفض الضغط به عن الحد المسموح والمحدد سابقا, يتم النفخ أثناء سير المقطورة. هذا النظام يزيد من عمر الإطار, وكفاءة الوقود, والسلامة نظام النفخ الذاتي للإطار
A small, open motor vehicle having one seat and three or more wheels fitted with large tires. It is designed chiefly for recreational use over roadless, rugged terrain All-terrain vehicle ATV Vehicle Types
مركبة آليه صغيرة لها مقعد واحد وثلاث عجلات أو أكثر مركب بها إطارات كبيرة. وهي مصممة بغرض الاستخدام الترفيهي على الطرق الغير معبدة والأراضي الوعرة سيارة جميع أنواع الأراضي
Autonomous Vehicle/car is also known as a driverless car, self-driving car and robotic car, is an automated vehicle capable of fulfilling the main transportation capabilities of a traditional car. As an autonomous vehicle, it is capable of sensing its environment and navigating without human input. Autonomous vehicles sense their surroundings with such techniques as radar, lidar, GPS, and computer vision. Advanced control systems interpret sensory information to identify appropriate navigation paths, as well as obstacles and relevant signage Autonomous Vehicle AV Vehicle Types
أوتونوموس, التي تعرف أيضا بالسيارة بدون سائق, السيارة المسيرة ذاتيا, السيارة الآلية. وهي وسيلة آليه قادرة على القيام بقدرات النقل للسيارة التقليدية. كمركبة آليه, فهي قادرة على استشعار البيئة المحيطة والتنقل بدون تدخل أدمي. وهي تقوم بذلك عن طريق الردار, والليزر, والأقمار الصناعية, والرؤية بالحاسب. تقوم انظمة التحكم المتقدمة بمعالجة معلومات الحساسات لتحديد المسارات المناسبة للسير, بالإضافة إلى التعرف على العوائق واللافتات ذات الصلة. سيارة ذاتية الحركة
It encompass a variety of technologies which seek to prevent these accidents by offering advanced in-vehicle technological assistance. In addition to reducing the number and severity of vehicle crashes, AVCS promises the additional benefits of increasing highway efficiency and driver comfort Advanced Vehicle Control Systems AVCS Control
نظم التحكم المتقدمة في المركبة
It is an intelligent transportation system, in which vehicles and highways will exchange information through a two-way communication system. The vehicles could continuously exchange information with other vehicles and traffic-control centers about speed, acceleration, braking, obstacles, road conditions, etc Intelligent Vehicle Highway System AVHS
هو نظام النقل الذكي, والتي يتم تبادل للمعلومات بين السيارات والطرق السريعة عن طريق نظام اتصال في اتجاهين. المركبات يتم تبادل المعلومات مع السيارات الأخرى ومراكز مراقبة حركة المرور عن السرعة, التسارع, الفرامل, ظروف الطريق ..... الخ النظام الذكي للاتصال بين الطرق السريعة والسيارات
A vehicle (usually a car) where all four wheels are driven. Most are fulltime systems for year-round driving, and use a viscous fluid coupling center differential instead of a transfer case to route drive torque to all four wheels. This allows the front and rear wheels to turn at slightly different speeds when turning on dry pavement All wheel drive AWD Transmission Vehicle Types
سيارات دفع رباعي مستمر
It is a system that turns the rear wheels in the same direction as the front wheels to aid in high-speed cornering. Other similar systems turn the rear wheels in the opposite direction as the front to aid in low speed maneuvering and/or parking All wheel steering AWS Steering
هو نظام يعمل على تحسين توجيه السيارة. فعند السرعات العالية يعمل على إدارة العجلات الخلفية في نفس اتجاه العجلات ألأمامية ليساعد في عملية التوجيه بالمنحنيات. كما يعمل على إدارة العجلات الخلفية في عكس اتجاه العجلات الأمامية عند السرعات البطيئة ليساعد على ركن السيارة توجيه بجميع العجلات- سيارات توجيه رباعي
It is an automobile feature that uses an active differential to transfer torque to the wheels that have the best grip on the road. Unlike traditional mechanical limited-slip differentials, an AYC is electronically controlled. AYC is a performance-oriented system which aims to increase cornering speeds Active Yaw Control AYC Steering Control Electronics
التحكم الإيجابي في حركة السيارة حول المحور الرأسي, هو نظام يستخدم مجموعة تروس فرقية فعالة/ إيجابية لنقل العزم إلى العجلات التي لديها تلاصق أفضل مع الطريق. وهي تختلف عن مجموعة التروس الفرقية الميكانيكية التقليدية ذات الانزلاق المحدود, حيث إنها يتحكم بها إليكترونيا. وهو نظام لتحسين الأداء لتمكين السيارة من زيادة سرعتها في المنحنيات التحكم الإيجابي في حركة السيارة حول المحور الرأسي
Blends of biodiesel and conventional hydrocarbon-based diesel are products most commonly distributed for use in the retail diesel fuel marketplace. Much of the world uses a system known as the "B" factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix, 20% biodiesel, 80% petrodiesel is labeled B20. Blends of 20% biodiesel and lower can be used in diesel equipment with no, or only minor modifications. Biodiesel can be used alone, or blended with petrodiesel in any proportions 20 percent of biodisel blend with 80 percent of petrodiesel B20 Fuel
خليط الديزل الحيوي والديزل البترولي
Also known as (BAS, Brake Assist System) or (EBA, Emergency Brake Assist) , which automatically applies full braking power when a panic stop is sensed via rapid pedal movement, such as when the driver stabs the brakes Brake Assist BA Brakes
هذاالنظام يفعل الفرامل بأقصى قوة عند الأحساس أن السائق يقوم بفرملة مفاجئة وذلك عن طريق متابعة سرعة حركة البدال. تعضيد (مساعدة) الفرامل
Also known as (BA, Brake Assist or EBA, Emergency Brake Assist). An electronic system designed to recognise emergency braking operation (by interpreting the speed and force with which the brake pedal is pushed), and automatically enhance braking effort (increases braking pressure) improves vehicle and occupant safety, and can reduce stopping distances by 45% Brake Assist System BAS Brakes
هو نظام إليكتروني مصمم للتعرف على حالة تفعيل الفرملة في حالة الطوارئ (عن طريق المعلومات المستنبطة من سرعة وقوة الضغط على البدال), والقيام ذاتيا بتكبير قوة الفرامل (زيادة ضغط الفرامل) وتحسين سلامة المركبة والركاب, مما يقلل من مسافة التوقف بحوالي 45 بالمائة نظام تعضيد (مساعدة) الفرمل
The system will help drivers detect crossing vehicles and objects behind them, and it also has the ability to automatically engage the brakes to help avoid a collision with vehicles and objects crossing its path while in reverse gear the driver either can’t see or isn’t reacting to quickly enough Backup Collision Intervention system BCI Brakes
هو نظام يقوم بمساعدة السائق على الكشف على المركبات و الأشياء خلف السيارة, والنظام له القدرة أيضا في تفعيل الفرامل لتفادي الاصطدام مع المركبات أو الاشياء التي في اتجاه حركة السيارة للخلف أثناء النقلة الخلفية, والسائق لا يراها أو لم يتصرف بالسرعة المطلوبة لإيقاف السيارة. نظام التدخل لمنع التصادم عند الرجوع للخلف
It is a generic term for an electronic control unit responsible for monitoring and controlling various electronic accessories in a vehicle's body. Typically in a car the BCM controls the power windows, power mirrors, air conditioning, immobilizer system, central locking, etc Body Control Module BCM Control
هو مصطلح عام لوحدة التحكم الإلكترونية المسؤولة عن رصد ومراقبة مختلف الملحقات الإلكترونية في جسم السيارة. غالبا الوحدة تقوم بالسيطرة على نوافذ الكهربائية، المرايا الكهربائية، تكييف هواء، نظام منع تشغيل السيارة، القفل المركزي..... الخ وحدة التحكم في الجسم
When the piston has reached the lowest point in the cylinder, the connecting rod will be vertical. The piston, therefore, will be at the bottom of its stroke and the connecting rod will be in the dead center position Bottom Dead Center BDC Engine Dimensions
هي النقطة التي يصل فيها المكبس إلى أدنى نقطة في الأسطوانة, وعندها يكون ذراع التوصيل في الوضع الرأسي. ويكون المكبس عند نهاية مشوار المكبس وذراع التوصيل يكون عند الوضع الميت للمحور النقطة الميتة السفلى
It is a type of electric vehicle (EV) that uses chemical energy stored in rechargeable battery packs Battery Electric Vehicle BEV Vehicle types
إنها نوع من المركبات الكهربائية تسخدم الطاقة الكميائية لتخزين الطاقة في بطاريات قابلة للشحنة مركبة تعمل بالبطارية
Brake / net / crankshaft horsepower (power delivered directly to and measured at the engine's crankshaft. Brake horsepower (bhp) is equal to the indicated horspower (ihp) minus the power caused by alternator, water pump, and other auxiliary components such as power steering pump, muffled exhaust system, etc. Brake refers to a device which was used to load an engine and hold it at a desired rotational speed. During testing, the output torque and rotational speed were measured to determine the brake horsepower Brake Horse Power BHP, bhp Brakes
القدرة الفرملية بالحصان
It is the amount that the spindle support arm leans in at the top. It is also known as steering axle inclination (SAI) or king pin inclination (KPI). Vehicles with ball-joint suspension have what is known as steering axis inclination (SAI) which is defined as the inward tilt of the spindle support arm at the top. The spindle assembly is supported at the upper and lower control arms by ball joints. The pivoting axis of the wheel around the ball joints is the same as the kingpin axis of vehicles with dead axles Ball Joint Inclination BJI Steering
زاوية ميل وصلة رمان بلي محور التوجيه
A system to help drivers notice cars in their blind spot. It is a vehicle-based sensor device that detects other vehicles located to the driver’s side and rear. Warnings can be visual, audible, vibrating or tactile. It can include "Cross Traffic Alert," "which alerts drivers backing out of a parking space when traffic is approaching from the sides Blind Spot Information System BLIS Safety
هو نظام لمساعدة السائقين مراقبة المنطقة الغير مرئية. هو جهاز مبني على أنظمة حساسات التي تعمل على اكتشاف المركبات الأخرى الموجودة إلى جانب السيارة وخلفها. يصدر النظام تحذيرات, التي يمكن أن تكون مرئية، أو مسموعة، أو اهتزاز. يمكن أن يشمل النظام "تنبيه المرور المتقاطع"، "الذي ينبه السائقين عند خروجهم من أماكن وقوف السيارات عند اقتراب مركبات من الجنب بالمسار الخلفي. نظام إعطاء معلومات عن المنطقة الغير مرئية
A term relating to the pressure in the cylinder calculated form the horsepower reading on a dynamometer Brake Mean Effective Pressure BMEP (bmep Brakes
هو مصطلح له علاقة بالضغط داخل اسطوانة المحرك يحسب من قراءة القدرة التي نحصل عليها باستخدام فرملة المحرك الضغط المتوسط الفعال الفرملي
Brake pressure modulator valve, it is part of the anti-lock brakes and traction control system. Also called the Electro-Hydraulic Control Unit (EHCU). During the Antilock mode, the BPMV can maintain or reduce brake fluid pressure independent of the pressure generated in the master cylinder. The BPMV does not provide more pressure than is applied by the master cylinder during braking Brake Pressure Modulator Valve BPMV Brakes
صمام التحكم في ضغط الفرامل, هو جزء من نظام منع غلق العجلات ونظام التحكم في الجر. ويسمى أيضا بوحدة التحكم الإليكترونية الهيدروليكية. خلال حالة منع الغلق, يعمل الصمام على الاحتفاظ وتقليل ضغط سائل الفرامل مستقلا عن الضغط المولد من الاسطوانة الرئيسية. ولا يزيد الصمام ضغط الدائرة بضغط أعلى من ضغط الاسطوانة الرئيسية أثناء الفرملة. صمام التحكم في ضغط الفرامل
Also apprivated as (BSIS). Also named as BSM (Blind Spot Monitoring), Blind Spot Warning (BSW), Blind Spot Information System (BLIS) Blind Spot Intervention (BSI) system BSI Safety
نظام التدخل للمنطقة الغير مرئية
automatic transmissions are equipped with "brake transmission system interlocks" to prevent children from moving the shift mechanisms out of park Brake Transmission Shift Interlocks BTSI Brakes
هذا النظام يمنع أجراء النقلات بصندوق التروس الذاتي بدون الضغط على بدال الفرامل نظام ربط الفرامل بناقل الحركة
The amount of heat required to raise 1 pound of water 1 F at sea level British thermal unit BTU Units
كمية الحرارة اللازمة لرفع 1 رطل ماء 1 درجة فهرنهايت عند مستوى البحر الوحدة الحرارية الإنجليزية
It is the ability of a body to store an electrical charge. Any object that can be electrically charged exhibits capacitance. A common form of energy storage device is a parallel-plate capacitor. In a parallel plate capacitor, capacitance is directly proportional to the surface area of the conductor plates and inversely proportional to the separation distance between the plates. If the charges on the plates are +q and −q, and V gives the voltage between the plates, then the capacitance C is given by C = q/V. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad (symbol: F), named after the English physicist Michael Faraday. A 1 farad capacitor, when charged with 1 coulomb of electrical charge, has a potential difference of 1 volt between its plates Capacitance C Electronics
سعة كهربائية
Celsius, also known as centigrade, is a scale and unit of measurement for temperature. 0 °C was defined as the freezing point of water and 100 °C was defined as the boiling point of water Celsius C Units
درجة حرارة مئوية
It is a fundamental unit of electrical charge, and is also the SI derived unit of electric charge (symbol: Q or q). It is equal to the charge of approximately 6.241×1018 electrons. Its SI definition is the charge transported by a constant current of one ampere in one second: 1 C = 1 A x 1 s. One coulomb is also the amount of excess charge on the positive side of a capacitor of one farad charged to a potential difference of one volt: 1 C = 1 F x 1 V Coulomb C Electronics Units
هي وحدة أساسية للشحنة كهربائية في نظام الوحدات العالمية؛ وهي مستمدة من الحمل الكهربائي (ك). وهو يساوي شحنة من حوالي 6.241 × 10 أس 18 إلكترون. ويعرف بالوحدات العالمية: بأنها الشحنة المنقولة من قبل تيار مستمر قيمته 1 أمبير واحد خلال1 ثانية: 1 كولوم = 1 أمبير × 1 ثانية. واحد كولوم يساوي أيضا بأنه مقدار الشحنة الزائدة في الجانب الإيجابي للمكثف سعته 1 فاراد اتهم لفرق الجهد 1 فولت: 1 كولوم = 1 فاراد × 1 فولت كولوم
Carbon (from Latin: carbo "coal") is the chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6. As a member of group 14 on the periodic table. Carbon can be exist as an separate element or compound with other elements like hydrocarbon (a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon), which when it is burning with the existence of Oxygen will emit heat energy and CO2, or CO for incomplete burning Carbon C Substance
الكربون (من اللاتينية: كاربو "الفحم") هو عنصر كيميائي مع الرمز ك, والعدد الذري 6. بوصفها عضوا في مجموعة 14 في الجدول الدوري. الكربون يمكن وجوده كعنصر منفصل أو مجمع مع عناصر أخرى مثل الهيدروكربون (النفط والغاز), هو مركب عضوي يتكون بالكامل من الهيدروجين والكربون، عند حرق المركب في وجود الأكسجين يؤدي إلى انبعاث طاقة حرارية- وثاني أكسيد الكربون أو أول أكسيد الكربون (في حالة حريق غير كامل) كربون
Centi is the SI prefix for a factor of ten to the power -2 centi c Units
هو بادئة في الوحدات العالمية تساوي 1/100, سنتي = 1/100 سنتي (س
They are regulations in the United States, were intended to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks sold in the United States. In the begging, it expressed in miles per U.S. gallon (mpg), depend on gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR). Recently, the CAFE standards are expressed as mathematical functions depending on vehicle "footprint", a measure of vehicle size determined by multiplying the vehicle’s wheelbase by its average track width. CAFE footprint requirements are set up such that a vehicle with a larger footprint has a lower fuel economy requirement than a vehicle with a smaller footprint Corporate Average Fuel Economy CAFE Fuel
اقتصاد الوقود التشريعي الزمني
The California Air Resources Board, also known as CARB or ARB, is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air quality; protecting the public from exposure to toxic air contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations California Air Resources Board CARB Dept
مجلس مصادر الهوء لكاليفورنيا
It is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of an accident. Also known as precrash system, forward collision warning system or collision mitigating system, use radar and sometimes laser and camera sensors to detect an imminent crash. They sound alarms or flash warnings on the windshield if the sensors detect you’re getting too close to the car in front of you too fast. If you don’t react in time, the system will automatically apply break pressure Collision Avoidance System CAS (1 Safety
نظام تجنب التصادم
The crank angle sensor (CAS) is a device used in the automobile to tell the Engine Control Unit (ECU) when to fire the spark plugs. The CAS detects where the piston is located in the engine and when it is in the right spot it tells the ECU to fire the spark plug in that cylinder. The sensor is typically located on the flywheel or on a separate cog. One of the teeth of the flywheel is missing, the one exactly at Top Dead Center of cylinder #1 (the closest to the flywheel). The sensor registers a change and responding to this, sends out a pulse to the ECU. The ECU is then able to calculate the injection and ignition timing. There are two commonly applied versions of this sensor, based on the principle of induction and on the Hall effect. This sensor is the most important sensor in modern day engines. When it is failing, the engine will not run at all Crank Angle Sensor CAS (2 Sensors Engine
حساس زاوية عمود المرفق
It is an automotive safety system developed by BMW. It is a further development and expansion of the anti-lock braking system, designed to distribute braking force during emergency braking whilst cornering. CBC interacts with ABS to counteract oversteer and guarantees optimum distribution of brake power in corners, keeping the vehicle heading in the intended direction even if the brakes are applied suddenly Cornering Brake Control CBC Brakes Steering
هو نظام سلامة تم تطويره من قبل بي أم دابليو. ويعتبر توسع في استخدام نظام منع غلق العجلات, صمم النظام لتوزيع قوة الفرملة خلال الفرملة المفاجئة أثناء الانعطاف. يشترك النظام مع نظام منع غلق العجلات للتغلب على التوجيه الزائد وضمان التوزيع المثالي لقوة الفرامل على العجلات أثناء الانعطاف بالسيارة, والحفاظ على سير السيارة في الاتجاه المقصود في حالة الاستخدام الفجائي للفرامل التحكم في الفرامل أثناء الانعطاف
Cold Cranking Amps is a rating used in the battery industry to define a battery's ability to start an engine in cold temperatures. The rating is the number of amps a new, fully charged battery can deliver at 0° Farenheit for 30 seconds, while maintaining a voltage of at least 7.2 volts, for a 12 volt battery. The higher the CCA rating, the greater the starting power of the battery Cold Cranking Amps CCA Electronics Engine
هو نظام لإيجاد مقياس يستخدم في مجال صناعة البطاريات لتحديد قدرة البطارية لبدأ تشغيل المحرك في الأجواء الباردة. المقياس هو عبارة عن مقدار شدة التيار بالأمبير الذي تنتجه البطارية الجديدة عند درجة حراة صفر فهرنهايت لمدة 30 ثانية, مع الاستمرار بالاحتفاظ بجهد البطارية 7.2 فولت على الأقل. كلما زاد رقم المقياس, كلما دل ذلك على زيادة القدرة للبطارية لتقويم المحرك تيار تقويم المحرك على البارد
It is an organization founded in 1952 to celebrate the grand automobiles of the prewar period Classic Car Club of America CCCA Dept
نادي السيارات الكلاسيك الأمريكي
A counterclockwise (CCW) or anticlockwise (ACW), motion is one that proceeds in the opposite rotational direction of clock's hands Conterclockwise CCW
هي حركة دورانية في اتجاه عكس دوران عقارب الساعة عكس دوران عقارب الساعة
Cd (Cx) is a number used in calculating the aerodynamic drag (air resistance) acting on a vehicle. The drag coefficient is a function of factors like the shape of the vehicle, airflow through the vehicle for ventilation and cooling. The number is determined in a wind-tunnel or by coasting tests performed on the vehicle. The lower the drag coefficient the less drag on the vehicle and the more aerodynamic is the vehicle Drag Coefficient Cd
معامل مقاومة الهواء
Since the drag coefficient is usually determined experimentally by measuring drag and the area and then performing the division to produce the coefficient, we are free to use any area that can be easily measured (total surface area, frontal area, ....). In automotive application; the automobile cross-sectional (frontal) area, were chosen to compute the coefficient of drag. The drag force will be then a function of the car Cd multiplied by CdA Drag Area CdA
مساحة مقاومة الهواء
Also konwn as thyristor ignition, it is a type of automotive electronic ignition system which is widely used in outboard motors, motorcycles, lawn mowers, chainsaws, small engines, turbine-powered aircraft, and some cars. It was originally developed to overcome the long charging times associated with high inductance coils used in inductive discharge ignition (IDI) systems, making the ignition system more suitable for high engine speeds (for small engines, racing engines and rotary engines). The capacitive-discharge ignition uses capacitor discharge current output to fire the spark plugs Capacitor-Discharge Ignition CDI Ignition
إشعال تفريغ المكثف
A family of manmade chemicals containing chlorine that include R12 automotive air conditioning refrigerant. CFCs have been blamed for a deterioration of the Earth’s protective ozone layer. CFCs have been phased out of production by international agreement.CFCs have been blamed for a deterioration of the Earth’s protective ozone layer Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs Substance
Computational fluid dynamics, usually abbreviated as CFD, is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses numerical methods and algorithms to solve and analyze problems that involve fluid flows. Computers are used to perform the calculations required to simulate the interaction of liquids and gases with surfaces defined by boundary conditions Computational Fluid Dynamics CFD
حسابات ديناميكا الموائع
It is a measurement of the velocity at which air flows into or out of a space. The CFM measurement often is used reference to air-cooling systems Cubic Feet per Minute CFM Units
قدم مكعب في الدقيقة
Center of gravity (also called Center of mass). The point in a system of bodies or an extended body at which the mass of the system may be considered to be concentrated and at which external forces may be considered to be applied Center of Gravity CG Dimensions
امركز ثقل الوزن (يطلق عليه أيضا مركز الكتلة).النقطة تقع داخل مجموعة من الأجسام أو أمتداد لها وهي النقطة التي عندها يوضع تأثير القوة الخارجية مركز ثقل الوزن
A battery-operated coil can provide a high-voltage spark even at low speeds, making starting easier. When batteries became common in automobiles for cranking and lighting, the ignition coil system displaced magneto ignition. The induction coil in an automobile's ignition system transforms the battery's low voltage to the thousands of volts needed to create an electric spark in the spark plugs to ignite the fuel. Originally, every ignition coil system required mechanical contact breaker points, and a capacitor (condenser). In older vehicles, a single coil would serve all the spark plugs via the ignition distributor. More recent electronic ignition systems use a power transistor to provide pulses to the ignition coil. A modern passenger automobile may use one ignition coil for each engine cylinder -or pair of cylinders Coil Ignition CI -1 Ignition
نظام إشعال بالملف
Compression-ignition engine (also known as diesel engine) is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition and burn the fuel that has been injected into the combustion chamber Compression Ignition CI -2 Ignition
إشعال بالضغط
It is the volume swept by all the pistons inside the cylinders of a reciprocating engine in a single movement from top dead centre (TDC) to bottom dead centre (BDC). It is commonly specified in cubic centimetres (cc or cm3), litres (l), or (mainly in North America) cubic inches (CID). Engine displacement does not include the total volume of the combustion chamber. Engine displacement is determined from the bore and stroke of an engine's cylinders. The bore is the diameter of the circular chambers cut into the cylinder block. Displacement = π/4 x bore x bore x stoke x number of cylinders Cubic Inch Displacement CID Engine
إزاحة (سعة) بالبوصة المكعبة
Is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one hundredth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length. Centi is the SI prefix for a factor of 10 to the power -2. centimetre is equal 10 mm or 1 m/100 Centimetre (centimeter cm Units Dimensions
هي وحدة طول في النظام المتري, وهو جزء من الوحدة الأساسية لوحدة الطول في نظام الوحدات العالمية (المتر), وهي تساوي واحد من المائة من المتر, السنتي, هو بادئة في نظام الوحدات العالمية تساوي 10 أس -2. سنتيمتر (سم) يساوي 1 متر/100 أو 10 ميليمتر سنتيمتر (سم)
CNG is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline (petrol), Diesel fuel, or propane/LPG. It is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill (natural gas is lighter than air, and disperses quickly when released). CNG is made by compressing natural gas (which is mainly composed of methane [CH4]), to less than 1% of the volume it occupies at standard atmospheric pressure. It is stored and distributed in hard containers at a pressure of 200–248 bar (2900–3600 psi), usually in cylindrical or spherical shapes. CNG is used in natural gas vehicles or traditional gasoline internal combustion engine cars that have been converted into bi-fuel vehicles- gasoline/CNG Compressed Natural Gas CNG Fuel
غاز طبيعي مضغوط
A company is an association or collection of individuals, whether natural persons, legal persons, or a mixture of both. A company may be a -corporation, partnership, association, joint-stock company, trust, fund, or organized group of persons, whether incorporated or not, and (in an official capacity) any receiver, trustee in bankruptcy, or similar official, or liquidating agent, for any of the foregoing Company Co Dept
A deadly gas that results from the incomplete burning of gasoline inside the engine, carbon monoxide is considered to be a serious air pollutant. You can’t see it or smell it, but it can kill in very small concentrations. Because of this you should never run an engine inside a closed garage. Various means are used to reduce the amount of CO produced by an engine, and primary among these is the catalytic converter. The converter "reburns" CO in the exhaust and converts it into harmless carbon dioxide Carbon Monoxide CO Substance
أول أكسيد الكربون
A colorless, odorless, incombustible gas, present in the atmosphere and formed during respiration, usually obtained from coal, coke, or natural gas by combustion. So called because it consists of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. Carbon dioxide exists in the Earth's atmosphere as a trace gas at a concentration of about 0.04 percent (400 ppm) by volume. It is part of automobile exhaust gasses Carbon dioxide CO2 Substance
ثاني أكسيد الكربون
The amount of friction between two surfaces is expressed as a coefficient of friction (COF). The coefficient of friction is determined by dividing the force required to pull an object across a surface by the normal force between between the two objects Coefficient Of Friction COF Brakes
معامل الاحتكاك
A type of distributorless ignition system where individual ignition coils are mounted directly over each spark plug. No spark plug wires are used- see also DI and DIS Coil-On-Plug ignition COP Ignition
نوع من نظام الإشعال بدون موزع, حيث يركب ملفات إشعال منفصلة مباشرة على كل شمعة إشعال, لا يحتاج هذا النظام إلى أسلاك بواجي (كبلات). ملف إشعال مركب على شمعة الإشعال
It is General Motors system called Central Port Injection (CPI) or Central Port Fuel Injection (CPFI). The system uses tubes with poppet valves from a central injector to spray fuel at each intake port rather than the central throttle-body. Though the CPI system supplies fuel to each of the engine’s intake ports like other multi-port fuel injection systems, it has only one centrally located fuel injector, called the MAXI injector Central Port Injection CPI Fuel
حقن الوقود المركزي
A crank position (CKP) sensor is an electronic device used in an internal combustion engine to monitor the position or rotational speed of the crankshaft. This information is used by engine management systems to control the spark/fuel delivery and timing to and other engine parameters Crankshaft Position Sensor CPS Sensors Engine
حساس وضع عمود المرفق هو جهاز إليكتروني يستخدم في محركات الاحتراق الداخلي لمتابعة وضع وسرعة دوران عمود المرفق. تستخدم تلك المعلومات عن طريق نظام إدارة المحرك للتحكم في مقدار الشرارة والوقود وتوقيتهما بالإضافة إلى التحكم بعوامل أخرى للمحرك حساس وضع عمود المرفق
Child restraint system (sometimes referred to as an infant safety seat, a child safety seats, a restraining car seat, or ambiguously as car seats) are seats designed specifically to protect children from injury or death during collisions. Car manufacturers may integrate child safety seats directly into their vehicle's design. Most commonly, these seats are purchased and installed by consumer Child Restraint System CRS Safety
نظام تثبيت الأطفال
It is a system to provide control over the air pressure in each tire of a vehicle as a way to improve performance on different surfaces. For example, lowering the air pressure in a tire creates a larger area of contact between the tire and the ground and makes driving on softer ground much easier. It also does less damage to the surface. Another function of the CTIS is to maintain pressure in the tires if there is a slow leak or puncture Central Tire Inflation System CTIS Sensors
هو نظام يعطي تحكم في ضغط الهواء بكل إطار بالمركبة وذلك لتحسين الأداء على الأسطح المختلفة. كمثال على ذلك, تخفيض ضغط الهواء داخل الإطارات يؤدي إلى زيادة مساحة التلامس بين الإطار والأرض مما يجعل السير على الأرض الرخوة أكثر سهولة. وكذلك المحافظة على تلف السطح. كما يعمل النظام على المحافظة على ضغط الإطار في حالة وجود تسرب للهواء به النظام المركزي لنفخ الإطار
The engine coolant temperature sensor is used to detect the engine coolant temperature. The sensor modifies a voltage signal from the ECM. The modified signal returns to the ECM as the engine coolant temperature input. The sensor uses a thermistor that is sensitive to the change in temperature. The electrical resistance of the thermistor decreases as temperature increases Coolant Temperature Sensor CTS Sensors
حساس درجة حرارة سائل التبريد
A crossover SUV (also called CUV for Crossover Utility Vehicle) or XUV is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient car-based platform. Crossover Utility Vehicle CUV Vehicle Types
يطلق عليها في بعض الأحيان سيارة الأنشطة الرياضية, حيث له نفس الشكل الخارجي ولكن السيارة أكثر توفير وكفاءة في الوقود. سيارة الأرض الوعرة
A Constant Velocity Joint is one that provides consistent driveshaft speeds regardless of the operating angle of the joint. CV joints (U-joints (Universal joints) are used primarily in on the driveshafts of front-wheel drive vehicles, and they come in two basic varieties: the Rzeppa ball type joints (which you’ll find on the outer end of the driveshaft) and tripod joints (which are used on the inner end). Constant Velocity joint CV joint (1 Transmission
وصلة السرعة الثابتة, هي واحدة من الوصلات التي تعطي سرعة ثابتة لعمود الإدارة لأي زاوية تشغيل يأخذها العمود. تستخدم وصلة السرعة الثابتة في عمود الإدارة للعجل الأمامي القائد, للوصلة نوعين, وصلة بها بلي (تستخدم في الناحية الخارجية لعمود إدارة العجلة) ونوع ذو وصلة ثلاثية (تستخدم في الناحية الداخلية لعمود الإدارة. وصلة السرعة الثابتة (الكبالن)
It is a type of motor vehicle that may be used for transporting goods or passengers Commercial Vehicles CV (2 Vehicle Types
السيارات التجارية (الشاحنات)
Honda CVCC engines have normal inlet and exhaust valves, plus a small auxiliary inlet valve which provides a relatively rich air–fuel mixture to a volume near the spark plug. The remaining air–fuel charge, drawn into the cylinder through the main inlet valve, is leaner than normal. The volume near the spark plug is contained by a small perforated metal plate. Upon ignition flame fronts emerge from the perforations and ignite the remainder of the air–fuel charge. This combination of a rich mixture near the spark plug, and a lean mixture in the cylinder allowed stable running, yet complete combustion of fuel, thus reducing CO (carbon monoxide) and hydrocarbon emissions. This method allowed the engine to burn less fuel more efficiently without the use of an exhaust gas recirculation valve or a catalytic convertor, although those methods were installed later to further improve emission reduction Compound Vortex Controlled Combustion CVCC Engine
محركات هوندا المستخدمة النظام, لها صمامات عادية لدخول الشحنة وخروج العادم بكل اسطوانة, بالإضافة إلى صمام دخول صغير إضافي الذي يوفر خليط من الهواء والوقود لحيز بالقرب من شمعة الإشعال. باقي الشحنة, تدخل الاسطوانة (خليط فقير عن المعتاد) عن طريق الصمام الأساسي. الحيز بالقرب من شمعة الإشعال محصور بلوح معدني مثقب. عند الإشعال جبهة اللهب تخرج من الثقوب وتشعل باقي خليط الهواء والوقود. المزيج من الخليط الغني بالقرب من شمعة الإشعال, والخليط الفقير في الاسطوانة يسمح بتشغيل منتظم, ويؤدي إلى احتراق كامل للوقود, وبالتالي تخفيض انبعاثات أول أكسيد الكربون والهيدروكربون بالعادم. هذه الطريق تسمح للمحرك بحرق وقود أقل بطريق أكثر كفاءة بدون الحاجة إلى صمام تدوير غازات العادم أو حفاز. تحكم دوامي متعدد الاحتراق
Continuously variable transmissions (CVTs) are another transmission technology that's available in some cars. Instead of having fixed gear ratios like a conventional manual or automatic, CVTs constantly adjust to the current driving conditions. Since there are no gear "steps" to shift between, CVTs often operate more smoothly than other technologies. Continuously Variable Transmission CVT Transmission
نظام نقل الحركة المستمر التغيير, هو نوع اخر من تقنية نقل الحركة والمستخدم في بعض السيارات. بدلا من أن يكون صندوق السرعات ذو نسب تخفيض ثابتة في نظام نقل الحركة اليدوي والذاتي التقليديين, يقوم هذا النظام باستمرار في تغيير نسبة التخفيض بناء على حالة القيادة (متطلبات السائق, ومقاومات الطريق, ومخرجات المحرك). وحيث أنه لا يوجد نقلات محددة بصندوق السرعات فأن هذا النظام يعمل بسلاسة. كما إن استخدامه يؤدي إلى توفير الوقود نظام نقل الحركة المستمر التغيير
It is an automotive technology that allows the intake and/or exhaust valve left to be infinitely varied during engine operation Continuous Variable Valve Lift CVVL Engine
نظام مستمر في تغيير توقيت الصمامات و مسافة الفتحة
It is an automotive technology that allows the intake and/or exhaust valve timing to be infinitely varied during engine operation Continuous Variable Valve Timing CVVT Engine
نظام مستمر في تغيير توقيت الصمامات
A clockwise motion is one that proceeds in the rotational direction of clock's hands Clockwise CW
هي حركة دورانية في اتجاه دوران عقارب الساعة الدوران في اتجاه عقارب الساعة
An abbreviation for drive; one of the forward gear positions in an automatic transmission Drive D
هو اختصار لوضع القيادة, واحدة من أوضاع اختيار النقلات للحركة الأمامية لصندوق نقل الحركة الذاتي وضع القيادة
A measure of relative noise level. It is a logarithmic unit that indicates the ratio of a physical quantity (usually power or intensity) relative to a specified or implied reference level one, and it is tenth (deci) of (B) a bel Decibel dB, DB Units
مقياس نسبي لمستوى الضجيج/ الضوضاء. هو وحدة لوغاريتمية, تدل على نسبة الكمية الفيزيائية (عادة القدرة أو الشدة) بالنسبة إلى كمية قياسية محددة. وهي عشر (ديسي) 1/10 وحدة بيل وحدة قياس الضوضاء
An electric current (flow of electrons through a wire) that moves in one direction with constant strength. Batteries are a source of direct current Direct Current DC Electronics
هو تيار كهربائي (انسياب الالكترونات خلال سلك) يتحرك في اتجاه واحد بشدة ثابتة. البطاريات تعتبر مصدر من مصادر التيار المستمر تيار مستمر
It is a type of semi-automatic or automated manual automotive transmission (sometimes referred to as a twin-clutch gearbox). It uses two separate clutches for odd and even gear sets Double (Dual) Clutch Transmission DCT Transmission
وهو نوع من نظام نقل الحركة/القدرة يطلق عليه شبه ذاتي/تلقائي أو النقل اليدوي الألي (التي يشار إليها أحيانا بعلبة التروس مزدوجة القابض). الذي يستخدم اثنين من القوابض المنفصلة واحد لمجموعة النقلات الفردية والأخر لمجموعة النقلات الزوجية ناقل حركة بقابض مزدوج
DD motors are, by definition, motors that transmit power to the application directly without the use of mechanical reduction elements like gears, pulleys, chains or belt Direct Drive (motor DD (1
موتور (نقل مباشر)
The gearbox reduction ratios, direct drive has reduction ratio equal 1:1, the input shaft connect directly with the output shaft. All ratios greater than 1:1 are underdriven. Ratios less than 1:1 are overdriven Direct Drive (transmission DD (2 Transmission
نقل مباشر (صندوق سرعات)
It is an aqueous urea solution blended with 32.5% high purity urea and 67.5% deionized water. DEF solution is used in Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) to lower NOx concentration in the exhaust emissions of diesel engines. Diesel engines run with a lean (overstoichiometric) air-to-fuel ratio to ensure the combustion of soot and prevent unburnt fuel from being emitted. The excess of oxygen necessarily leads to generation of nitrogen oxides (NOx), which are harmful pollutants, from the nitrogen in the air. Selective catalytic reduction is used to reduce the amount of NOx released into the air using DEF Diesel Exhaust Fluid DEF
سائل عادم الديزل
In Direct Gasoline Injection engines, the Air/Fuel mixture is formed directly in the combustion chamber, as opposed to injection before the intake valve (petrol engine) or a separate pre-combustion chamber (diesel engine). During the intake stroke, only combustion air is drawn in through the open intake valve, the fuel being injected at high pressure into the combustion chamber by special injectors. The precise metering, of injected fuel for every combustion stroke leads to low fuel-consumption and low emission levels, higher engine torque and spontaneous response behavior Direct Fuel Injection DFI Fuel
حقن وقود مباشر
Injecting fuel into the combustion chamber rather than the intake runner Direct Injection DI (1 Fuel
حقن الوقود مباشرة في غرفة الاحتراق بدلا من الحقن في مجمع السحب حقن مباشر
A distributor ignition used in older vehicles, where a single coil would serve all the spark plugs via the ignition distributor A distributor is a device in the ignition system of gasoline internal combustion engine that routes high voltage from the ignition coil to the spark plugs in the correct firing order Distributor Ignition DI (2 Ignition
إشعال بالموزع
The direct ignition (DI) or coil-on-plug (COP) or distributor-less ignition system (DIS) is an ignition system that doesn't use a distributor to route the high voltage to the spark plugs. The high tension connection lead runs directly from the ignition coil to the spark plugs. In this system, an ignition coil may be used for each cylinder or one ignition coil for each two cylinders (dual spark ignition system). The direct ignition system uses either magnetic crankshaft sensor or cam shaft speed sensor, or both to determine the crank shaft position and engine speed. The ECU controls each ignition coil and the spark timing is determined according to engine operating conditions detected by engine sensors- see also COP and DIS Direct Ignition System DI (3 Ignition
نظام إشعال مباشر
Provides access to vehicle information and personalization options with the touch of a button. Set vehicle and driver preferences such as locking, lighting and seating options. It also displays warning messages if a system problem is detected. View vehicle information such as average fuel economy, fuel range, and mor Driver Information Center DIC
مركز معلومات السائق
The Distributorless ignition system does not use a distributor to route high voltage to the spark plugs. The high voltage plug wire runs directly from the ignition coil to the spark plug. Some DIS systems have one coil for every two spark plugs (a shared system), while others have a separate coil for each spark plug. Eliminating the distributor makes the system more reliable and eliminates maintenance- see also DI and COP Distributorless Ignition System DIS Ignition
نظام إشعال بدون موزع للشرارة
It is the world's first continuously variable length intake manifold. The principle is simple. The intake manifold of each cylinder is arranged in circular shape and half-recessed into the V-valley. The inner wall is actually a rotor, on which the air inlet is located. When the rotor swivels, the position of the air inlet moves in relation to the outer housing of manifold. This varies the effective length of the intake manifold, from a maximum 673 mm to 231 mm. As the DIVA requires a circular construction, it occupies more space (especially height) than other VLIM systems. It is later abandon by BMW Differentiated Variable Air Intake DIVA Engine
مجمع سحب دائم التغيير
Do it yourself, also known as DIY, is the method of building, modifying, or repairing something without the aid of experts or professional Do-It-Yourself job DIY
عملية تقوم بها بنفسك
It is the multi-pin diagnostic connection port for automobiles and trucks used to interface a scan tool with the control modules of a given vehicle and access On-Board Diagnostics and live data stream Data Link Connector DLC
وصلة الحصول على المعلومات
An ignition system that does not use a distributor to route high voltage to the spark plugs. The high voltage plug wire runs directly from the ignition coil to the spark plug. Some DIS systems have one coil for every two spark plugs (a shared system), while others have a separate coil for each spark plug (Coil-On-Plug Ignition). Eliminating the distributor makes the system more reliable and eliminates maintenance. Distributorless Ignition system DLI Ignition
نظام إشعال بدون موزع
Also, called digital volt/ohmmeter (DVOM). It is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter would include basic features such as the ability to measure voltage, current, and resistance. Analog multimeters use a microammeter whose pointer moves over a scale calibrated for all the different measurements that can be made. Digital multimeters display the measured value in numerals, and may also display a bar of a length proportional to the quantity being measured. Digital multimeters are now far more common Digital Multi Meter DMM
مقياس رقمي متعدد القياس
In the United States a department of motor vehicles (DMV) is a state-level government agency that administers vehicle registration and driver licensing Department of Motor Vehicles DMV Dept
قسم المركبات الآلية (السيارات)
Shuts down cylinders in an engine when not needed, typically at highway cruise. Sometimes called Cylinder Deactivation, Multiple Displacement System (MDS), Active Fuel Management, or Variable Cylinder Management Displacement on Demand DOD (DoD Engine
تبطيل عمل اسطوانات بالمحرك عند عدم الحاجة إليها, خاصة عند السير على الطرق السريعة. ويطلق عليها عدة أسماء منها: تبطيل الاسطوانات, نظام متعدد الإزاحة, الإدارة الفعالة في الوقود, إدارة سعة الاسطوانات تعديل سعة المحرك عن الحاجة
The U.S. Department of Energy Department Of Energy DOE Dept
قسم الطاقة
DOHC dual overhead cam engine has two camshafts in cylinder head. Cams act directly on valves without rocker arms. One cam operate the intake valves the other operate the exhaust valves Dual Over Head Cam DOHC Engine
هو نظام له عمودين للكامة يركب في رأس المحرك. حيث تأثر الكامات مباشرة على الصمامات بدون استخدام أذرع متأرجحة. عمود كامة لتشغيل صمامات السحب, والعمود الأخر لتشغيل صمامات العادم نظام عمود كامة علوي مزدوج
It is the U.S. governmental body authorized by the U.S. Congress to establish and regulate transportation safety in the United States of America Department of Transportation DOT Dept
قسم النقل
DOT 3 BRAKE FLUID; Brake fluid that meets the Department of Transportation specifications for glycol based fluids with a wet boiling point (lowest allowable after it’s been in use) of 284 degrees F. and a dry boiling point of 401 degrees F. DOT 3 fluid is the type commonly specified by most vehicle manufacturers. Because it is glycol based, it absorbs moisture over time (hygroscopic). This lowers its effective boiling point and promotes internal corrosion in the brake system. For this reason, the brake fluid should be replaced periodically (every two years is recommended by many experts) and every time the brakes are relined or serviced. DOT 4 BRAKE FLUID; A "heavy-duty" glycol based brake fluid with a slightly higher wet boiling point of 311 degrees F. and a dry boiling point of 446 degrees. This type of fluid is sometimes specified for performance vehicles or those subject to high brake temperatures. DOT 5 BRAKE FLUID; A silicone based fluid that does not absorb moisture and has a boiling point of at least 500 degrees F. DOT 5 fluid does not have to be changed periodically and can minimize brake system corrosion, but is very expensive compared to DOT 3 or DOT 4 fluid (it costs three to five times as much). It will not mix with DOT 3 or DOT 4 brake fluid. DOT 5 is NOT recommended for any vehicle with ABS brakes because it tends to aerate when cycled rapidly through small orifices DOT 3, DOT 4, DOT 5 Brakes
دوط 3, دوط 4, دوط 5
It is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine Diesel Particulate Filter DPF
هو منقي (فلتر) يعمل على منع ملوثات الجسيمات الصلبة والهباب من غازات عادم محركات الديزل منقي الجسيمات للديزل
It is a suspension control system helps prevent understeer or oversteer by managing the braking force and engine torque delivered to individual wheels. DSC helps the car to stay on track under any road conditions Dynamic Stability Control DSC Control
التحكم في الاتزان الديناميكي
The DSG removes the clutch pedal and associated operation, and places it under the control of computer chips and hydraulic servos. When left in full auto mode, it's as smooth as or smoother than any conventional automatic Direct Shift Gearbox DSG Transmission
نقل مباشر لصندوق التروس
Computerized engine control systems have a certain amount of built-in self-diagnostic capability to detect problems that affect engine performance and emissions. The same is true for the antilock brake system and other onboard systems that are computer controlled. When a fault is detected, the computer will store a diagnostic trouble code in its memory and illuminate the "Check Engine" light. On some vehicles, the computer can be put into a special diagnostic mode by grounding certain terminals on a diagnostic connector. This will cause the Check Engine or other lights to flash out the fault code. On many vehicles, though, a scan tool must be plugged into the computer system to access and read the codes Diagnostic Trouble Cods DTCs
رمز (شفرة) تشخيص العطل
It is the act of driving a motor vehicle with blood levels of alcohol in excess of a legal limit ("Blood Alcohol Content", or "BAC"). In most jurisdictions a measurement such as a blood alcohol content (BAC) in excess of a specific threshold level, such as 0.05% or 0.08% defines the offense Driving Under the Influence DUI
القيادة تحت تأثير الكحول
DWS developed by Dunlop for on-line detection of tire pressure loss. When tire pressure is reduced, the tire circumference is also reduced resulting in increased wheel rpm. The system uses the wheel speed sensors of an existing ABS system to continuously monitor wheel speed and tire condition, and triggers a warning signal upon detecting a problem Deflation Warning System DWS Tire
هو نظام من ابتكار شركة دنلوب للكشف عن انخفاض ضغط الإطار. عند انخفاض ضغط الإطار, فإن محيط الإطار يقل بالتالي ويؤدي إلى زيادة سرعة دوران العجل. يستخدم النظام حساسات سرعة العجل الموجودة بنظام منع غلق العجلات لرصد سرعة دوران العجلات بشكل مستمر وبالتالي حالة نفخ الإطار, ويقوم النظام بتحذير السائق في حالة زيادة سرعة الإطارات عن سرعة معينة والتي تعني انخفاض ضغط الإطار عن ضغط معين نظام تحذير أنخفاض ضغط الإطار
Direct yaw-mometn control system is proposed to improve the handling and stability of a four-independent-wheel drive electric vehicle. The DYC system distributes torque and power to each wheel motor to meet the requirements of each wheel Direct Yaw-moment Control DYC Control
التحكم المباشر في عزم دوران السيارة
Modulus of elasticity, Young's modulus, or elastic modulus, is the mathematical description of an object or substance's tendency to be deformed elastically (i.e., non-permanently) when a force is applied to it. The elastic modulus of an object is defined as the slope of its stress–strain curve in the elastic deformation region: As such, a stiffer material will have a higher elastic modulus. E = S/ε = stress (S)/strain (ε), where lambda (E) is the elastic modulus; stress is the restoring force caused due to the deformation divided by the area to which the force is applied; and strain is the ratio of the change caused by the stress to the original state of the object. If stress is measured in pascals, since strain is a dimensionless quantity, then the units of E are pascals as well Modulus of elasticity E
معامل المرونة للمعدن
Ethanol fuel mixtures have "E" numbers which describe the percentage of ethanol fuel in the mixture by volume, for example, a fuel blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline. Low-ethanol blends, from E5 to E25, are also known as gasohol are for use in regular cars, though internationally the most common use of the term refers to the E10 blend. High-ethanol blends, from E85 to E100 are for use in flex fuel vehilces (FFVs Ethanol 85 E85 Fuel
وقود بنزين به إيثانول بنسبة 85% إيثانول 85
The EAS provides variable height suspension for on and off road applications. The five suspension heights offered by EAS are (from lowest to highest in terms of height) "Loading," "Highway," "Standard," "Off-Road," and "Off-Road Extended." Height is controlled automatically based on speed and undercarriage sensors, but a manual ride height switch allows control over the suspension by the driver. The "Loading" and "Off-Road" heights are available only at speeds less than 35 mph. The "Highway" setting is not available manually; it is set when the vehicle moves at over 50 mph for over 30 seconds Electronic Air Suspension EAS Electronics Suspension
نظام تعليق الهواء الإليكتروني
It is a safety system in vehicles designed to ensure maximum braking power is used in an Emergency stop situation. By interpreting the speed and pressure at which the brake pedal is pushed, the system detects if the driver is trying to execute an emergency stop, and if the brake pedal is not fully applied, the system overrides and fully applies the brakes until the Anti-lock braking system (ABS) takes over to stop the wheels locking up Emergency Brake Assist EBA Brakes
نظام المساعدة لفرامل الطوارئ
System having a monitor at each wheel to sense conditions and feed an electrical impulse into an onboard computer to reduce uncontrollable skidding during rapid braking action Electronic Brake Control Module EBCM Brakes Control Electronics
وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية للفرامل
which automatically applies more braking power to the wheels with the best grip. Also called (EBFD). Often coupled with anti-lock braking systems, EBD can apply more or less braking pressure to each wheel in order to maximize stopping power whilst maintaining steering control Electronic brake-force distribution EBD Brakes Electronics
التوزيع الإليكتروني لقوة الفرامل
Device that receives signals, processes them, makes decisions, and gives commands. More commonly referred to as a computer Electronic Control Assembly ECA Electronics Control
جهاز يستقبل الإشارات, ويعالجها, ويقرر الحالة, ويعطي أمر بالتشغيل. والذي يمكن وصفه بالحاسب مجمع التحكم الإليكتروني
It maintains the temperature selected in the passenger compartment and can be set separately for the driver's side and passenger side.The auto function is used to automatically control temperature, air conditioning, fan speed, recirculation and air distribution. Electronic Climate Control ECC Electronics Control
التحكم في حالة المناخ
Electronically controlled brake (ECB) developed by Toyota Motor Corporation initially for its hybrid and Lexus models, is the world's first production brake-by-wire braking system. The ECB is an integral part of the company's Vehicle Dynamics Integrated Management stability control system, by allowing for automatic brake adjustments, which work in conjunction with variable gear-ratio electric power steering systems Electronically Controlled Brakes ECB Brakes Electronics Control
التحكم الإليكتروني للفرامل
It is a heat engine where an (internal) working fluid is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine, produces motion and usable work. The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused (closed cycle), or (less commonly) dumped, and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine External Combustion Engine ECE Engine
هو محرك حراري حيث السائل الفعال يتم تسخينه بمصدر خارجي, عن طريق جدران المحرك, أو مبادل حراري. السائل يتمدد ويؤثر على المحرك, ويؤدى إلى حركة وشغل فعال. يتم بعدها تبريد السائل, ويضغط ويعاد استخدامه (الدائرة المغلقة), والذي أقل شيوعا يتم التخلص من السائل ويتم سحب سائل أخر (دائرة مفتوحة). محرك احتراق خارجي
ECM or ECU (electronic control unit) is an embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle Engine Control Module ECM Electronics Engine Control
وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية/المحرك
The main purpose of the ECS is to adapt the suspension of the car into the driving conditions taking account the speed, surface of the road, cornering, stopping requirements and acceleration. The aim is to increase safety and driving comfort Electronic Control Suspension ECS Electronics Control Suspension
الغرض الاساسي للنظام هو جعل تعليق السيارة مرتبط بحالات السير بأن يأخذ في الاعتبار السرعة, حالة سطح الطريق, دوران الطريق, متطلبات إيقاف وتسريع السيارة بغرض زيادة السلامة وتحقيق قيادة مريحة التحكم الإليكتروني في التعليق
Also called coolant temperature sensor (CTS). It is used to measure the temperature of the engine coolant of an internal combustion engine. The readings from this sensor are then fed back to the Engine control unit (ECU). This data from the sensor is then used to adjust the fuel injection and ignition timing. On some vehicles the sensor may be used to switch on the electronic cooling fan, and/or to provide readings for a coolant temperature gauge on the dash Engine Coolant Temperature sensor ECT Sensors Engine
حساس درجة حرارة سائل تبريد المحرك
It is an embedded system that controls one or more of the electrical subsystems in a vehicle Electronic Control Unit ECU Electronics Control
وحدة تحكم اليكترونية
The eCVT in the hybrid car is integral with the generator motor. It harnesses internal combustion and electric power sources to drive the wheels Electronically Controlled, Continuously Variable Transmission eCVT Transmission Electronics Control
نظام نقل الحركة المستمر ذو التحكم الإليكتروني
It automatically or manually adjusts each damper to suit the driving conditions meaning you enjoy outstanding comfort along with on-road safety. EDC reduces variations in wheel load, ensures tyres have excellent traction and counteracts bodyshell movement regardless of the weight your automobile may be carrying or the state of the road's surfac Electronic Damper Control EDC Electronics Control Suspension
التحكم الإليكتروني في المخمد
Electronic Diesel Control is a diesel engine fuel injection control system for the precise metering and delivery of fuel into the combustion chamber of modern diesel engines used in trucks and cars Electronic Diesel Control Unit EDCU Electronics Control
هو نظام يتحكم إلكترونيا في نظام التحكم في حقن الوقود لمحركات الديزل, عن طريق الدقة في المعايرة , وإمداد الوقود لغرف الاحتراق لمحركات الديزل الحديثة بالشاحنات والسيارات وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية للديزل
The electronic differential lock permits smooth, comfortable starts on split-friction road surfaces with differing levels of grip. If one wheel starts to spin, the electronic differential lock will brake the wheel as necessary, directing power to the wheel with better grip in the process. The electronic differential lock reduces tyre wear and operates at speeds of up to around 40 km/h (4MOTION: up to about 80 km/h). As a software function, it forms part of the electronic stabilisation program (ESP) and traction control (ASR Electronic Differential Lock EDL Electronics Control
وحدة غلق التروس الفرقية الإليكترونية
It is a device installed in some automobiles which is part of SDM to record information related to vehicle crashes or accidents. In modern diesel trucks, EDRs are triggered by electronically sensed problems in the engine (often called faults), or a sudden change in wheel speed. One or more of these conditions may occur because of an accident. Information from these devices can be collected after a crash and analyzed to help determine what the vehicles were doing before, during and after the crash or event. The term generally refers to a simple, tamper-proof, read-write memory device, similar to the "black box" found on airplanes -as opposed to the tape recorders and video cameras common in police vehicles and many commercial truck Event Data Recorder EDR Electronics Sensors
مسجل بيانات الحدث
EDTC prevents excessive slip of the driven wheels due to engine drag torque (engine brake). This may occur when driving on slippery road surface if the driver change to lower gear or suddenly lifts his foot off the throttle Engine Drag Traction Control EDTC Engine Control
تمنع انزلاق العجلات القائدة نتيجة فرملة المحرك. الذي يحدث في حالة السير على طريق زلق,التي تحدث في حالة نقل صندوق التروس إلى نقلة أقل (ذات نسبة تخفيض عالية) أو رفع القدم فجأة عن بدال الوقود وحدة تحكم المحرك في الجر
It is an agency of the European Union (EU). Its task is to provide sound, independent information on the environment. It is a major information source for those involved in developing, adopting, implementing and evaluating environmental policy, and also the general public European Environment Agency EEA Dept
الوكالة الأوربية للبيئة
A manifold heat or vacuum control valve (EFE valve) routed exhaust gas under floor of the intake manifold, or use an electrically heated grid installed under the base of the carburetor or through the throttle (EFE system) when the engine was cold to improve the vaporization of cold fuel. This will reduce exhaust emission and improve drivability during warm up Early Fuel Evaporation EFE Fuel
التبخير المبكر للوقود
This type of system uses computer-controlled fuel injectors to spray fuel into the engine rather than mechanically controlled injectors or a carburetor. EFI comes in several varieties: "throttle body injection" (See TBI), "multi-port injection" (See MFI or PFI) or Sequential Fuel Injection (SFI). Electronic fuel injection is considered to be superior to carburetion because it allows more precise fuel metering for easier starting, lower emissions, better fuel economy and performance Electronic Fuel Injection EFI Fuel Electronics
هذا النوع من النظام يستخدم الحاسب الألي في التحكم في حاقن الوقود لضخ الوقود داخل المحرك بدلا من التحكم الميكانيكي للحاقن أو المغذي (الكربراتير). حقن الوقود الإليكتروني يأتي تحت العديد من المسميات: الحقن في مجمع السحب (TBI), الحقن متعدد الثغور (MFI), حقن متتابع (SFI). حقن الوقود الإليكتروني يعتبر متفوق على نظام المغذي, فهو يسمح بدقة أعلى في معايرة الوقود لسهولة بدأ الإدارة, وتقليل التلوث, وزيادة اقتصاديات الوقود وتحسين الأداء حقن وقود إليكتروني
The EGO sensor is mounted in the exhaust system upstream of the catalyst. It detects excess oxygen in the exhaust stream. Oxygen, or the lack of it, indicates whether the air/fuel is lean or rich of the stoichiometric ratio. The EGO sensor is also known as a Lambda-Sond sensor or O2 sensor Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor EGO Sensors
هو حساس/ جهاز استشعار مركب في مسار الهواء الداخل للحفاز. ويقوم بالكشف عن مقدار الأكسجين في غازات العادم. ويبين نسبة (الهواء/الوقود), أي ما إذا كان الخليط غني أو فقير, الحساس يعرف أيضا باسم حساس الأكسجين, وحساس لمدا. حساس الأكسجين بالعادم
This is an emissions control technique for reducing oxides of nitrogen emissions in the tailpipe. A small amount of exhaust gas is recirculated back into the intake manifold to dilute the incoming air/fuel mixture. Contrary to what you’d think, it has a cooling effect on combustion temperatures which helps reduce the formation of oxides of nitrogen (See NOX). The EGR valve is the main control device in this system Exhaust-Gas Recirculation EGR
إعادة تدوير (استخدام) غاز العادم
EHC systems exist under many trade names, including Variable Ride-Height Suspension (VRHS), Active Height Control (AHC), and pneumatic suspension systems Electronic Height Control EHC Electronics Control Suspension
التحكم الإليكتروني في الارتفاع
It uses the same hydraulic assist technology as standard systems, but the hydraulic pressure comes from a pump driven by an electric motor instead of a drive belt at the engine. Because electro hydraulic power steering systems deliver power by an electric motor and not the engine directly. This means that the engine load does not change as the power is being delivered by the battery and steering motor. Also it improves the fuel economy (about 1.5% increases). Also the electric motor is operated and controlled by the ECU unit which controls the motor very precisely by accurately monitoring the steering force, vehicle speed and steering angle. This added intelligence makes the system very comfortable to drive and improves the handling & feel to a certain extent Electro-Hydraulic Power Steering EHPS Steering
التوجيه الكهروهيدروليكي المؤزر
An ignition system where a solid state device has replaced mechanical breaker points. An automotive ignition in which electrical pulses are generated electronically, usually by transistors controlled by sensing devices, without the use of mechanically actuated breaker points. Also called breakerless ignition. Any system that uses an electronic circuit to supply the voltage to the sparking plugs of an internal-combustion engine Electronic Ignition EI Ignition Electronics
نظام الإشعال الإليكتروني
Pure brake by wire, no brake fluid, no brake lines, electric motor generates braking force, and wheel brake ECU actuated from electronic brake pedal Electro Mechanical Brake EMB Brakes
فرامل كهروميكانيكية
Electric and magnetic fields (EMF) are invisible lines of force that surround any electrical device that is plugged in and turned on. EMF are made up of waves of electric and magnetic energy moving together (radiating) through space. Electric fields are produced by electric charges and magnetic fields are produced by the flow of current through wires or electrical devices Electric and Magentic Field EMF (emf
مجال كهرومغناطيسي
In an Engine Management System (EMS), electronics control fuel delivery, ignition timing and firing order. Primary sensors on the system are engine angle (crank or Top Dead Center (TDC) position), airflow into the engine and throttle demand position. The circuitry determines which cylinder needs fuel and how much, opens the requisite injector to deliver it, then causes a spark at the right moment to burn it. Early EMS systems used analogue computer circuit designs to accomplish this, but as embedded systems became fast enough to keep up with the changing inputs at high revolutions, digital systems started to appear Engine Management System EMS Engine
نظام إدارة المحرك
Abbreviation for the Environmental Protection Agency, the government agency responsible for enforcing anti-pollution rules. The EPA requires all vehicle manufacturers to certify their new car as being in compliance with the applicable clean air standards for the year of manufacture. The manufacturer, in turn, must provide an "emissions" warranty on every vehicle they sell that guarantees free replacement of any emissions control device that might fail during that time. This coverage usually extends to such items as the computer control system, catalytic converter, fuel and ignition system -except the spark plugs and normal wear items Environmental Protection Agency EPA Dept
وكالة حماية البيئة
Passive safety - Pedestrian protection Electronic Pedestrian Protection System EPP Electronics
النظام الإليكتروني لحماية المشاة
It is part of car air conditioning system. It is an automatic pressure regulating valve mounted in suction line between evaporator outlet and compressor inlet. Purpose is to maintain a predetermined pressure and temperature in the evaporator, to keep the evaporator from freezing Evaporator Pressure Regulator EPR
هو جزء من نظام تكييف السيارة. هو صمام ذاتي للتحكم في الضغط, يركب في خط السحب بين خرج المبخر ومدخل الضاغط, بغرض الإبقاء على الضغط المحدد والحرارة في المبخر, والحماية للمبخر من التجمد منظم ضغط التبخر
It uses an electric motor to assist the driver of a vehicle. It provides power assist even when the engine is stopped. It also improves fuel economy because it is lightweight and the DC motor consumes energy only when power assist is required Electric Power (Assisted) Steering EPS, EPAS Steering
مؤازر التوجيه الكهربائي
ESA is part of ECU (Electronic Control Unit) that controls Ignition timing and dwell angle Electronic Spark Advance ESA Electronics Ignition
تقديم الإشعال الإليكتروني
Also called electronic spark timing (EST Electronic Spark Control ESC (1 Electronics Control Ignition
نظام التحكم في الشرارة
It is a stability enhancement system designed to electronically detect and assist drivers in critical driving situations and under adverse conditions...automatically. ESC systems exist under many trade names, including Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Electronic Stability Program (ESP), and Vehicle Stability Enhancement -VSE Electronic Stability Control ESC (2 Electronics Control
نظام التحكم في الاتزان
It is a stability enhancement system designed to electronically detect and assist drivers in critical driving situations and under adverse conditions...automatically. ESP systems exist under many trade names, including Vehicle Stability Control (VSC), Electronic Stability Control (ESC), and Vehicle Stability Enhancement -VSE Electronic Stability Program ESP Electronics
برنامج الاتزان الإلكتروني
Compared to the mechanical ignition timing control of the conventional system, the control method with the ESA (Electronic Spark Advance) provides higher precision, and the freedom to set the ignition timing. As a result, this system offers improved fuel economy and power output Electronic Sparkpulg Timing EST Electronics Ignition
توقيت الإشعال الإليكتروني
It is an automobile technology which electronically "connects" the accelerator pedal to the throttle, replacing a mechanical linkage Electronic Throttle Control ETC (1 Electronics Control
التحكم الإليكتروني في صمام الخانق
The Electronic Transmission is an automatic transmission which uses modern electronic control technologies to control the transmission. The transmission itself, except for the valve body and speed sensor, is virtually the same as a full hydraulically controlled transmission, but it also consists of electronic control unit (ECU) and actuators. The electronic sensors monitor the speed of the vehicle, gear position and throttle opening, sending this information to the ECU. The ECU then controls the operation of the clutches and brakes based on this data and controls the timing of shift points and torque converter tock-up Electronic Traction Control ETC (2 Transmission Electronics
التحكم الإليكتروني في الجر
Electronic Transmission Control Unit (Electronic TCU) is a device that controls modern electronic automatic transmissions. The evolution of the modern automatic transmission and the integration of electronic controls have allowed great progress in recent years. The modern automatic transmission is now able to achieve better fuel economy, reduced engine emissions, greater shift system reliability, improved shift feel, improved shift speed and improved vehicle handling. The immense range of programmability offered by a TCU allows the modern automatic transmission to be used with appropriate transmission characteristics for each application Electronic Transmission Control Unit ETCU Electronics Transmission Control
وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية لنقل الحركة
The ETD’s tighten the seat belts in an accident, by pulling them close against the body. They are used with the front and most rear seat belts, some with belt force limiters. ETDs are designed, to deploy during a frontal or rear-end collision generating a frontal acceleration or rear deceleration rate sufficient to meet the system’s deployment threshold. The apparatus is either integrated in the seat belt locking retractor or it is located at the belt buckle strap Emergency Tensioning Device ETD Safety
النظام يعمل على جذب الحزام اثناء الحادثة, عن طريق جعل الحزام ملاصق للجسم. وهو يستخدم بالمقاعد الأمامية ومعظم المقاعد الخلفية, بعضها مضاف إليه نظام تقليل القوة. النظام مصمم على أن يعمل خلال التصادم الامامي والخلفي والذي يولد تسارع نتيجة التصادم الخلفي أو تباطء نتيجة التصادم الأمامي يصل إلى حد التفعيل. النظام مدموج في منظومة ربط الحزام أما في الجزء الثابت أو المشبك المعدني للحزام. جهاز زيادة شد الحزام في حالة الطوارئ
It is the European standards organization "to establish engineering dimensions, load/pressure characteristics and operating guidelines", for tires, rims and valves. It is analogous to T&RA European Tyre and Rim Technical Organization ETRTO Dept
المنظمة التقنية الأروبية للإطار والجنط
It also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, uses one or more electric motors or traction motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources, or may be self-contained with a battery or generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft and electrically powered space vehicles Electric Vehicle EV Vehicle Types
المركبة الكهربائية
It adds scientifically evaluated external sounds (more like conventional internal combustion engine cars) to quietly-operating hybrid, electric and fuel cell vehicles that can intelligently alert road users to the presence of quietly-operating vehicles traveling at 15-25 mph or less Enhance Vehicle Acoustics EVA Vehicle Types
النظام يقوم أطلق صوت مشابه لصوت السيارات المشابه للسيارات المسيرة بمحرك الاحتراق الداخلي في حالة السيارة التي تعمل بهدوء مثل السيارات المهجنة والكهربائية, وخلايا الوقود, حيث يقوم النظام بتنبيه المستخدمين للطريق لوجود سيارة تعمل بهدوء وتسير بسرعة 15-25 ميل/ساعة أو أقل تعزيز صوتيات المركبة
In the EWB system, during braking an electric motor presses a wedge connected to a brake pad located between the brake caliper and the brake disk. The rotation of the wheel and the resulting friction automatically reinforces the wedge effect. The wedge uses a vehicle’s kinetic energy, converting it into braking energy. By reinforcing itself this way, the EWB needs only one tenth of the actuating energy required by today's hydraulic braking systems. Compared to today’s hydraulic brakes, the EWB is more efficient, responds faster, requires far less energy, reduces maintenance cost and time, reduces number of parts, which reduce a vehicle’s weight and saves space Electronic Wedge Brake EWB Electronics Brakes
فرامل الخابور الإليكترونية
Fahrenheit (symbol °F) is a temperature scale. Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees Fahrenheit F (1 Units
هي مقياس للحرارة. حيث درجة حرارة تجمد الماء 32 درجة فهرنهايت ودرجة غليان الماء 212 فهرنهايت فهرنهايت
TThe farad (symbol: F) is the SI unit of capacitance, named after the English physicist Michael Faraday. A 1 farad (F) capacitor, when charged with 1 coulomb (C) of electrical charge, has a potential difference of 1 volt (V) between its plates; 1 F = 1 C/ 1 V Farad F (2 Units
فاراد هو وحدة السعة الكهربائية في الوحدات العالمية, تمت تسمتها على أسم الفيزيائي الإنجليزي مايكل فاراداي. 1 فاراد هي السعة الكهربائية للمكثف عند شحنه بشحنه مقدارها 1 كولوم عندما يكون هناك فرق جهد بين الألواح يساوي 1 فولت؛ 1 فاراد = 1 كولوم/1 فولت فاراد
Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA). The "formula", designated in the name, refers to a set of rules with which all participants' cars must comply. The F1 season consists of a series of races, known as Grands Prix (from French, originally meaning great prizes), held throughout the world on purpose-built F1 circuits and public roads. The results of each race are evaluated using a points system to determine two annual World Championships, one for the F1 drivers and one for the F1 constructors Formula One F1 Racing
فورميلا وان
A free-body diagram is a sketch of an object of interest with all the surrounding objects stripped away and all of the forces acting on the body shown. It is used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting upon the object in a given situation Free Body Diagram FBD
رسم الجسم الحر
FCEV or FCV, is a type of vehicle which uses a fuel cell to power its on-board electric motor. Fuel cells in vehicles create electricity to power an electric motor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressed hydrogen. A fuel cell vehicle that is fueled with hydrogen emits only water and heat, but no tailpipe pollutants, therefore it is considered a zero-emissions vehicle Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle FCEV Vehicle Types
سيارة خلايا الوقود الكهربائية
Battery and fuel cell can provide power to the vehicle motors either singly or together. The fuel cell replacing the petrol internal combustion engine in conventional hybrid vehicles. At low speeds the FCHV can run on battery alone, with a range of about 50 km (31 mi). For high performance, such as when accelerating from rest, the fuel cell and battery supply power in tandem Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle FCHV Vehicle Types
سيارة خلايا الوقود المهجنة
FCV or FCEV, is a type of vehicle which uses a fuel cell to power its on-board electric motor. Fuel cells in vehicles create electricity to power an electric motor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressed hydrogen. A fuel cell vehicle that is fueled with hydrogen emits only water and heat, but no tailpipe pollutants, therefore it is considered a zero-emissions vehicle Fuel Cell Vehicle FCV Vehicle Types
سيارة خلايا الوقود
A forward collision warning system is an automobile safety system designed to reduce the severity of an accident, also known as precrash system, collision avoidance system or collision mitigating system, are based on camera or radar sensors monitoring the road ahead. They provide object recognition and detect relative speeds between a vehicle and objects in the road. If the closing speed represents a risk of an impending collision, drivers can be alerted through a number of warning methods, when there is an imminent collision or take action autonomously without any driver input, by braking or steering or both Forward Collision Warning FCW Safety
تحذير الاصطدام الأمامي
FCEV or FCV, is a type of vehicle which uses a fuel cell to power its on-board electric motor. Fuel cells in vehicles create electricity to power an electric motor, generally using oxygen from the air and compressed hydrogen. A fuel cell vehicle that is fueled with hydrogen emits only water and heat, but no tailpipe pollutants, therefore it is considered a zero-emissions vehicle Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle FCEV Vehicle Types
سيارة خلايا وقود كهربائية
Flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) is an alternative fuel vehicle with an internal combustion engine designed to run on more than one fuel, usually gasoline or a blend of up to 85% ethanol (E85), and both fuels are stored in the same common tank Flexible-Fuel Vehicle FFV Vehicle types
مركبة ذات قابلية للعمل بوقود مخلوط, هو مركبة تعمل بالوقود البديل ولها محرك احتراق داخلي مصمم للعمل بأكثر من نوع واحد من الوقود, في الغالب يكون بنزين مخلوط مع إيثانول بنسبة تصل إلى 85% إيثانول, ويخزن نوعي الوقود في نفس الخزان سيارة ذات قابلية للعمل بوقود مخلوط
It is an operating agency (division) of the U. S. Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation Federal Highway Administration FHWA Dept
هي وكالة (قسم) من وزارة النقل في الولايات المتحدة متخصص في النقل السريع إدارة الطرق السريعة الاتحادية
An ordinary fixed intake manifold has its geometry optimized (no change in its geometry), is designed for high speed power, or low speed torque, or a compromise between them. Many modern engines turned to variable intake manifold designs , to benefit from supercharging effect creating form pressure waves, such as: Variable Intake Manifold (VIM), Variable Length Intake Manifold (VLIM), 3-stage variable length intake manifold, continuous variable length intake manifold (Differentiated Variable Air Intake “DVAI”), or resonance intake manifold systems Fixed Geometry Intake Manifold FGI Engine
مجمع سحب ثابت الأبعاد/ الشكل
International Automobile Federation, consists of 213 national member organisations in 125 countries worldwide. It is mostly known as the governing body for many auto racing events Fédération International de l'Automobile FIA Dept Racing
الاتحاد الدولي للسيارات
Federation of International Motorcycling, is the global governing/sanctioning body of motorcycle racing. It represents 103 national motorcycle federations that are divided into six regional continental unions Fédération International de Motocyclisme FIM Dept Racing
الاتحاد الدولي للموتوسيكلات
are U.S. federal regulations specifying design, construction, performance, and durability requirements for motor vehicles and regulated Automobile safety-related components, systems, and design feature Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards FMVSS Dept
معايير سلامة المركبات الفيدرالية
It is designed to interrupt fuel delivery in the event of a collision, thus minimizing the risk of fire Fire Prevention System FPS Safety
هو نظام مصصم لمنع تدفق الوقود في حالة الإصطدام, وبذلك يقلل من احتمال حدوث الحريق نظام تجنب الحريق
Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI), also known as Petrol Direct Injection or Direct Petrol Injection or Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) or Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI), is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines. The gasoline is highly pressurized, and injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. It uses gas more efficiently and economically by direct injection into the engin. Gasoline direct injection enables a stratified fuel charge (ultra lean burn) combustion for improved fuel efficiency, and reduced emission levels at low loade Fuel Stratified Injection FSI Fuel
في محركات الاحتراق الداخلي، حقن الوقود الطبقي, المعروف أيضا الحقن المباشر لمحركات البنزين، أو باسم الحقن المباشر لمحركات الإشعال بالشرارة، هي أنواع مختلفة من حقن الوقود المستخدمة محركات البنزين ذات الشوطين والأربعة أشواط. يتم ضغط البنزين إلى ضغط عالي ويتم حقن الوقود, عبر خط المسار المشترك, مباشرة في غرفة الاحتراق كل اسطوانة. في بعض التطبيقات، الحقن المباشر للبنزين يمكن شحنة الوقود الطبقي (خليط ضعيف جدا) من الاحتراق لتحسين الكفاءة في استهلاك الوقود، وانخفاض مستويات الانبعاثات عند الاحمال المنخفضة. حقن الوقود الطبقي
Is a unit of length. Since 1960 the term has usually referred to the international foot, defined as being one third of a yard, making it 0.3048 meters exactly. It is an integral part of both the imperial and United States customary systems of units. It is subdivided into 12 inches Foot ft Units
هي وحدة طول, منذ عام 1960 يشار إليه بالقدم الدولي, الذي يعرف بثلث الياردة, ويكون طوله 0.3048 متر. وهو جزء من نظامي الوحدات الإمبريالية والعرفي الأمريكي, ويقسم إلى 12 بوصة. قدم
A means of driving a vehicle by applying engine power to the front wheels instead of the rear wheels. There are advantages and disadvantages to front-wheel drive. On the plus side, the advantages go mostly to the vehicle manufacturers because it makes it easier for them to package a vehicle engine/drivetrain/body combination more efficiently. In other words, the same basic engine/drivetrain package can be installed under a variety of "different" model cars. The same basic engine/transaxle package Chrysler developed for their Omni and Horizon (which they basically copied from Volkswagen) can be found under all their current front-wheel drives ranging from the mini-vans to the sports sedans. Thus a manufacturer can save a bundle in tooling and development when he wants to bring a new front-wheel drive model to the showroom floor. As far as FWD being superior to RWD, it’s mostly hype. Some people will argue that front-wheel drive handles better than rear-wheel drive while others will argue exactly the opposite. Porsche and Mercedes seem to be unimpressed by FWD, and most race cars are rear-wheel drive. On the negative side, some front-wheel drive cars have a tendency to "torque steer" (See Torque Steer), and transaxle problems can be very costly to repair because it often involves pulling the engine Front wheel drive FWD Transmission
سيارات الجر الأمامي
Or acceleration of gravity, this is the numerical value for the acceleration of a free-falling object under the sole influence of gravity. It has a special symbol to denote it - the symbol g. The numerical value for the acceleration of gravity is most accurately known as 9.80665 (9.81 m/s2), 32.164 (3.2 ft/s2 Gravitational acceleration g (1
هي القيمة العددية لتسارع جسم تحت تأثير الجاذبية فقط (بدون مقاومة الهواء وخلافه). ويرمز لها بالرمز "جـ" ولها قيمة عددية تساوي 9.80665 (9.81 متر/ ثانية تربيع), 32.164 (3.2 قدم/ ثانية تربيع). عجلة الجاذبية الأرضية
It is a metric system unit of mass. A gram is defined as one-thousandth of the SI base unit, the kilogram, or 1×10−3 kg Gram (gramme g (2 Units Dimensions
وحدة الكتلة في النظام المتري. الجرام يعرف بإنه واحد من ألف للكيلوجرام (للوحدة الأساسية للكتلة لنظام الوحدات العالمي). جرام
The shear modulus or modulus of rigidity (G or μ) describes an object's tendency to shear (the deformation of shape at constant volume) when acted upon by opposing forces; it is defined as shear stress over shear strain. The shear modulus is part of the derivation of viscosity Modulus of rigidity G
معامل الجساءة
Gram per mile for measuring the greenhouse-gas emissions g/mi G units
جرام لكل ميل, وحدة قياس انبعاثات غازات الصوب الزجاجية مقدره بوزن جرام غازات لكل مسافة ميل مقطوعة جرام/ ميل
It is the maximum distributed weight that may be supported by an axle of a road vehicle. Typically, GAWR is followed by either the letters FR or RR, which indicate front or rear axles respectively Gross Axle Weight Rating GAWR Dimensions
وزن المحور الأجمالي المحدد
It is the maximum allowable combined weight of a towing road vehicle, passengers and cargo in the tow vehicle, plus the weight of the trailer and cargo in the trailer. This rating is set by the vehicle manufacturer Gross Combination Weight Rating GCWR Dimensions
هو الحد الأقصى المسموح به للوزن المجمع من القاطرة/ الجرار والركاب, والحمولة في مركبة السحب, زائد وزن المقطورة والحمولة في المركبة المسحوبة. هذا الحد يحدد من قبل مصنع السيارات الوزن المجمع الأجمالي المحدد
In internal combustion engines Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI), also known as Petrol Direct Injection or Direct Petrol Injection or Spark Ignited Direct Injection (SIDI) or Fuel Stratified Injection (FSI), is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines. The gasoline is highly pressurized, and injected via a common rail fuel line directly into the combustion chamber of each cylinder. In some applications, gasoline direct injection enables a stratified fuel charge (ultra lean burn) combustion for improved fuel efficiency, and reduced emission levels at low load Gasoline Direct Injection GDI Fuel
في محركات الاحتراق الداخلي، الحقن المباشر لمحركات البنزين، المعروف أيضا باسم الحقن المباشر لمحركات الإشعال بالشرارة، أو حقن الوقود الطبقي، هي أنواع مختلفة من حقن الوقود المستخدمة محركات البنزين ذات الشوطين والأربعة أشواط. يتم ضغط البنزين إلى ضغط عالي ويتم حقن الوقود, عبر خط المسار المشترك, مباشرة في غرفة الاحتراق كل اسطوانة. في بعض التطبيقات، الحقن المباشر للبنزين يمكن شحنة الوقود الطبقي (خليط ضعيف جدا) من الاحتراق لتحسين الكفاءة في استهلاك الوقود، وانخفاض مستويات الانبعاثات عند الاحمال المنخفضة. حقن مباشر لوقود البنزين
Greenhouse gases are those that can absorb and emit infrared radiation, but not radiation in or near the visible spectrum. In order, the most abundant greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere are: water vapour -H2O, carbon dioxide -CO2, methane -CH4, nitrous oxide -N2O, ozone -O3 Greenhouse Gases GHG Substance
غازات الصوب الزجاجية
The gasoline particulate filter (GPF) is a device that can be installed on the tailpipe of a gasoline vehicle to capture and reduce emissions of particulate matter, a common pollutant Gasoline Particulate Filter GPF Fuel
منقي (فلتر) الجسميات لسيارات البنزين
Emissions measured on a vehicle (chassis) dynamometer are expressed in grams of pollutant per unit of distance traveled ie. grams per mile (g/mi) or g/km gram per mile- g/mi gpm Units
مقدار الملوثات المنبعثه من السيارة بالجرام لكل مسافة تحرك مقدارها ميل جرام لكل ميل
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a global navigation satellite system (GNSS) developed by the United States Department of Defense and managed by the United States Air Force 50th Space Wing. It is the only fully functional GNSS in the world, can be used freely, and is often used by civilians for navigation purposes. It uses a constellation of between 24 and 32 medium Earth orbit satellites that transmit precise radiowave signals, which allow GPS receivers to determine their current location, the time, and their velocity. Its official name is NAVSTAR GPS. Although NAVSTAR is not an acronym, a few backronyms have been created for it Since it became fully operational in 1993, GPS has become a widely used aid to navigation worldwide, and a useful tool for map-making, land surveying, commerce, scientific uses Global Positioning System GPS
النظام العالمي لتحديد الموقع -المكان
A 4-wheel drive vehicle to meet the pressing demand for tough and reliable vehicles with excellent cross-country capabilities. The most widely held theory is that the military designation GP (for General Purpose) was slurred into the word Jeep General Purpose Vehicle GPV Vehicle Types
مركبة متعددة الأغراض
It is a performance or luxury automobile capable of high speed or spirited long-distance driving. The most common format is a two-door coupé with either a two-seat or a 2+2 arrangement Grand Tourer GT Vehicle Types
سيارة فاخرة عالية الأداء
It is the total weight of a road trailer that is loaded to capacity, including the weight of the trailer itself, plus fluids, and cargo, that a vehicle is rated to tow by the manufacture Gross Trailer Weight Rating GTWR Dimensions
هو الوزن الإجمالي لمقطورة الطريق, المحملة بالحمولة القصوى, بما في ذلك وزن المقطورة نفسها, زائد السوائل, والحمولة, وهو الحد المسموح للقاطرة بسحبه من قبل المصنع الوزن الإجمالي للمقطورة المحدد
It is the maximum operating weight/mass of a vehicle as specified by the manufacturer including the vehicle's chassis, body, engine, engine fluids, fuel, accessories, driver, passengers and cargo but excluding that of any trailers. The term is used for motor vehicles and trains Gross Vehicle Weight GVW Dimensions
هو أقصى وزن للسيارة/ المركبة منصوص عليه في مواصفات الصانع وهو يتضمن وزن الشاسية, المحرك, المحرك, جميع سوائل المحرك, الوقود, الملحقات, السائق, الركاب وحمولة السيارة, ويستثنى منه وزن المقطورة. هذا المصطلح يستخدم للسيارات, والقطارات. الوزن الإجمالي للسيارة
It is the maximum allowable total weight of a road vehicle or trailer that is loaded, including the weight of the vehicle itself plus fuel, passengers, cargo, and trailer tongue weight Gross Vehicle Weight Rating GVWR Dimensions
هو أقصى حمل إجمالي مسموح به للسيارة أو المقطورة المحملة, متضمنه وزن المركبة نفسها, بالإضافة إلى وزن الوقود, الركاب, البضاعة, ووزن الجر للمقطورة. الوزن الإجمالي المقدر للسيارة
The hour is a unit of measurement of time. It is not a standard defined by the International System of Units, the hour is a unit accepted for use with SI, an hour comprises 60 minutes, or 3,600 seconds. It is approximately 1/24 of a mean solar day Hour h (hr Units
الساعة وحدة قياس الوقت. وهي ليست وحدة من الوحدات العالمية, ولكن هي وحدة يسمح باستخدامها مع الوحدات العالمية, الساعة تتكون من 60 دقيقة, أو 3600 ثانية. وهي حوالي 1/24 من اليوم ساعة
In physics, and electronics, the henry (symbol H) is the SI derived unit of inductance. It is named after Joseph Henry (1797–1878), the American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction Henry H Units
هنري رمزها (هـ) هي وحدة الحث الكهربائي بالوحدات العالمية, وتستخدم في الفيزياء, والاليكترونيات. تم تسميتها على أسم العالم الأمريكي مكتشف الحث الكهرومغناطيسي جوزيف هنري (1797-1878) هنري
It is a colorless, odorless, tasteless, non-toxic, nonmetallic, highly combustible diatomic gas Hydrogen H2 Substance
هو غاز عديم اللون والرائحة والطعم، وغير سام، غير معدني وهو غاز ثنائي الذرة قابل للاشتعال للغاية هيدروجين
A hydrocarbon (HC) is any kind of substance that contains hydrogen and carbon. Gasoline is a hydrocarbon. So is oil. When gasoline burns inside an engine, there is always a tiny amount that’s left over. If an engine is misfiring because of a fouled spark plug or a leaky valve, or if it has worn rings or valve guides and uses oil, quite a bit of unburned HC can pass through into the exhaust. Unburned HC is a major source of air pollution and is the primary source of smog in most urban areas. Various means are used to reduce the amount of HC an engine produces, the primary one of which is the catalytic converter. The converter reduces HC emissions by "reburning" and converting it into harmless water vapor Hydro Carbon HC substance
هيدرو كربون
It is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition HCCI Ignition
هو نوع من الاحتراق الداخلي الذي يتم ضغط الخليط الجيد الخلط للوقود ومؤكسد (عادة الهواء) إلى نقطة الإشعال الذاتي إشعال بالضغط لشحنة متجانسة
Also known as Downhill Speed Regulation (DSR) or Hill Mode Descent Control, allows a smooth and controlled hill descent in rough terrain without the driver needing to touch the brake pedal Hill Descent Control HDC Control
التحكم في نزول المنحدرات
It is a type of hybrid vehicle and electric vehicle that combines a conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) propulsion system with an electric propulsion system -hybrid vehicle drivetrain Hybrid Electric Vehicle HEV Vehicle Types
مركبة كهربائية مهجنة
It is a type of hydrogen vehicle using an internal combustion engine Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle HICEV Vehicle Types
سيارة محرك احتراق داخلي هيدروجيني
HMMWV, commonly known as the Humvee, is a four-wheel drive military automobile produced by AM General High Mobility Multipurpose Wheeled Vehicle HMMWV Vehicle Types
تعرف أيضا باسم همفي, إنها مركبة حربية ذات دفع رباعي ذات عجلات, يتم انتاجهامن قبل شركة أي أم جنرال سيارة نقل متعددة الأغراض ذات عجلات
Headway Monitoring and Warning (HMW) application assists the driver in keeping a safe driving distance ('headway'). This considerably reduces the chances of an accident by simply allowing the driver more time to react in unexpected situations. The HMW continuously calculate the headway to the car ahead and presented it to the driver. The headway value equals the distance to the vehicle ahead divided by the driving speed Headway Monitoring and Warning HMW Safety
مراقبة المسافة الأمامية الآمنة للسيارة والتحذير
The HO2S is placed into the exhaust manifold. It detects the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas compared to the outside air. The sensor has a closed-end tube made of ceramic zirconia. The zirconia generates voltage from approximately 1V in richer conditions to 0V in leaner conditions. The sensor signal is sent to the ECM. The ECM adjusts the injection pulse duration to achieve the ideal air-fuel ratio. The ideal air-fuel ratio occurs near the radical change from 1V to 0V Heated Oxygen Sensor HO2S Sensors
حساس الأكسوجين
They have been introduced in the United States to allow solo driver vehicles to use the lane on payment of a variable fee, which usually varies with demand. Motorcycles are permitted in HOV lanes for safety reasons High Occupancy Toll lanes HOT
مسار طريق للسيارات ذات عدد ركاب عالي يدفع فيه رسوم
It also known as carpool lane, diamond lane, and transit lane or T2 or T3 lanes in Australia and New Zealand, is a restricted traffic lane reserved at peak travel times or longer for the exclusive use of vehicles with a driver and one or more passengers, including carpools, vanpools, and transit busesy level is 2 or 3 occupants. Many jurisdictions exempt other vehicles, including motorcycles, charter buses, emergency and law enforcement vehicles, low-emission and other green vehicles, and/or single-occupancy vehicles paying a toll. HOV lanes are normally created to increase average vehicle occupancy and person throughput with the goal of reducing traffic congestion and air pollution High-Occupancy Vehicle lane HOV
مسار طريق للسيارات ذات عدد ركاب عالي
It is the rate at which work is done. The mechanical horsepower, also known as imperial horsepower, of exactly 550 foot-pounds per second is approximately equivalent to 745.7 watts. The metric horsepower PS (German translation of horsepower) of 75 kgf-m per second is approximately equivalent to 735.5 watts Horsepower HP Units
حصان ميكانيكي
Also known as Hill-Start Assist Control (HAC). It holds the vehicle when the foot brake is released by temporarily locking the brake pressure (for a maximum of 1.5 seconds) to provide comfortable starting-off without rolling back. Hill Start Assist (HSA) operates on inclines greater than 5% and is fitted in combination with both the manual transmission and the Direct Shift Gearbox (DSG Hill Start Assist HSA Control
نظام مساعدة بدأ صعود المطلع, يقوم على بقاء ثبات السيارة على مطلع في حالة رفع القدم من بدال الفرامل للضغط على بدال البنزين لصعود المطلع, وذلك عن طريق إبقاء ضغط الفرامل (بحد أقصى 1.5 ثانية) للسماح ببداية سلسة بدون التدحرج للخلف. يعمل النظام على مطلع أكثر من 5% ويمكن تركبيه في السيارة للعمل مع كلا من ناقل الحركة اليدوي وفي صندوق تروس النقل المباشر نظام مساعدة بدأ صعود المطلع
It is the brand name of Toyota for hybrid car drive train technology, it is a refinement of the original Toyota Hybrid System (THS). HSD technology produces a full hybrid vehicle which allows the car to run on the electric motor only, as opposed to most other brand hybrids which cannot and are considered mild hybrids. The HSD also combines an electric drive and a planetary gearset which performs similarly to a continuously variable transmission. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal/accelerator and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer Hybrid Synergy Drive HSD Transmission
نظام نقل حركةسينرجي للسيارات المهجنة
is the technology of indoor and vehicular environmental comfort. Its goal is to provide thermal comfort and acceptable indoor air quality. HVAC system design is a subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer. Refrigeration is sometimes added to the field's abbreviation as HVAC&R or HVACR, or ventilating is dropped as in HACR -such as the designation of HACR-rated circuit breakers Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning HVAC
التدفئة, التهوية, والتكييف
It is any public road or other public way on land. It is used for major roads, but also includes other public roads and public tracks Highway hwy
طريق سريع
It is the unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI). It is defined as one cycle per second Hertz Hz Units
إنها وحدة التردد في النظام العالمي للوحدات. وهي تعرف بدورة واحدة في الثانية هرتز
Symbol of electric current Electric current I
رمز للتيار الكهربائي تيار كهربائي
An idle air control actuator or idle air control valve (IAC actuator/valve) is a device commonly used in fuel-injected vehicles to control the engine's idling RPM Idle Air Control IAC Control
مشغل/صمام التحكم في هواء الحمل الخالي هو جهاز يستخدم في السيارات التي تستخدم حقن الوقود للتحكم في سرعة دوران المحرك عند الحمل الخالي التحكم في هواء الحمل الخالي
Intake air temperature sensor. Also has a verity if names in the past (ACT, VAT, MCT, MAT and ATS) under OBD II guidelines, these parts are now called IATs. The intake air temperature sensor is mounted to the air duct housing. The sensor detects intake air temperature and transmits a signal to the ECM. The temperature-sensing unit uses a thermistor that is sensitive to the change in temperature. Electrical resistance of the thermistor decreases in response to the temperature rise Intake Air Temperature IAT Sensors
حساس درجة حرارة الهواء المسحوب
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small plate ("chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon. This can be made much smaller than a discrete circuit made from independent electronic components. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: cost and performance Integrated Circuit IC
دائرة متكاملة
Also named Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC). . It is an optional cruise control system for road vehicles, that automatically adjusts the vehicle speed to maintain a safe distance from vehicles ahead. The control is imposed based on sensor information from on-board sensors only. A radar sensor is linked to the ECU which slows the vehicle and brakes if necessary Intelligent Cruise Control ICC
مثبت السرعة (التحكم في سرعة السير) الذكي
It is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion apply direct force to some component of the engine. The force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into useful mechanical energy Internal Combustion Engine ICE Engine
محرك احتراق داخلي
The ICP sensor's primary function is to provide a feedback signal to indicate injection control pressure to enable the PCM to command the correct injector timing and pulse width and the correct injection control pressure for proper fuel delivery at all speed and load conditions Injection Control Pressure ICP Control
ضغط التحكم في الحقن
It is used as a mean to ignite the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber of internal combustion engines. By applying a current to a primary wire loop wrapped around an iron magnetic core, a magnetic field would be generated in the primary loop without the magnets. This magnetic field would induce a current in an adjacent longer secondary loop of wire. By opening the circuit in the primary loop, the collapsing magnetic field would cause a voltage to be induced in the secondary loop. This high voltage was carried or "distributed" by a distributor to each of the multiple spark plugs in a gasoline car Inductive Discharge Ignition IDI (1 Ignition
إشعال تفريغ حثي
A distributorless ignition system consisting of two separate ignition coils, an ignition module, a secondary conductor housing mounted to an aluminium cover plate, a crankshaft sensor, and electronic spark timing Integrated Direct Ignition IDI (2 Ignition
إشعال مباشر متكامل
The IEA was initially dedicated to responding to physical disruptions in the supply of oil, as well as serving as an information source on statistics about the international oil market and other energy sectors International Energy Agency IEA Dept
وكالة الطاقة العالمية
It is "the world's largest technical professional society -- promoting the development and application of electrotechnology and allied sciences for the benefit of humanity, the advancement of the profession, and the well-being of our members." Its objectives are the educational and technical advancement of electrical and electronic engineering, telecommunications, computer engineering and allied disciplines. The IEEE fosters the development of standards that often become national and international standards. The organization publishes a number of journals, has many local chapters, and several large societies in special areas, such as the IEEE Computer Society. It is the world's largest association of technical professionals with more than 400,000 members in chapters around the world. IEEE's membership has long been composed of engineers and scientists. Allied professionals who are members include computer scientists, software developers, information technology professionals, physicists, and medical doctors, in addition to IEEE's electrical and electronics engineering core Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers IEEE Dept
معهد مهندسي الكهرباء والإليكترونيات
IFS, as the name implies, has the front wheels independently sprung. Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of each other. Note that "independent" refers to the motion or path of movement of the wheels/suspension Independent Front Suspension IFS Suspension
تعليق مستقل أمامي
It is the theoretical power of a reciprocating engine if it is completely frictionless in converting the expanding gas energy (piston pressure × displacement) in the cylinders. It is calculated from the pressures developed in the cylinders, measured by a device called an engine indicator – hence indicated horsepower. The actual power output may only be 70% to 90% of the indicated horsepower due to frictional losses within the engine (bearing drag, rod and crankshaft windage losses, oil film drag, etc Indicated Horsepower IHP, ihp Units
إنه القدرة البيانية لمحرك الاحتراق الداخلي في حالة إنه بدون احتكاك لتحويل الطاقة المتولدة من تمدد الغاز (الضغط على المكبس × ازاحة المكبس) داخل الاسطوانات. وهي تحسب من قياس الضغط المتولد داخل الاسطوانات, الذي يقاس بجهاز يطلق عليه المقياس البياني للمحرك (ولذا جاء المسمى حصان بياني). القدرة الفعلية تقدر بحوالي من 70% إلى 90% من القدرة البيانية بسبب فقد الاحتكاك داخل المحرك (الفقد في احتكاك حلقات المكبس بجدار الاسطوانة, احتكاك كراسي التحميل, الخ.....) بالإضافة إلى القدرة الضائعة في تشغيل ملحقات المحرك (المروحة, الدينامو, مضخة المياه, الخ...). القدرة البيانية بالحصان
An ignition interlock device or breath alcohol ignition interlock device (IID and BAIID) is a mechanism, like a breathalyzer, installed on a motor vehicle's dashboard. Before the vehicle's motor can be started, the driver first must exhale into the device; if the resultant breath-alcohol concentration analyzed result is greater than the programmed blood alcohol concentration (which varies between countries), the device prevents the engine from being started Ignition Interlock Device IID Ignition
هو جهاز منع الإشعال أو جهاز منع الإشعال من هواء التنفس (هواء الزفير) المحتوى على الكحول, هو نظام يركب في لوحة العدادات بالسيارة. قبل أن يبدأ السائق بتشغيل المحرك, يقوم بالزفير (نفخ الهواء) في الجهاز؛ في حالة أن نتيجة تحليل تركيز الكحول في هواء التنفس التي يقيسها الجهاز أعلى من تركيز الكحول في الدم المسجل بالجهاز (حد السماح لنسبة الكحول تختلف من بلد إلى أخر), يقوم الجهاز بمنع المحرك من العمل عن طريق غلق الإشعال. جهاز غلق الإشعال
It is a U.S. non-profit organization funded by auto insurers. It works to reduce the number of motor vehicle crashes, and the rate of injuries and amount of property damage in the crashes that still occur. It carries out research and produces ratings for popular passenger vehicles as well as for certain consumer products such as child car booster seats Insurance Institute for Highway Safety IIHS Dept
هي منظمة أمريكية غير ربحية تمولها شركات التأمين على السيارات. تعمل على تقليل معدل حوادث السيارات، ومعدل الإصابات ومقدار الضرر في الممتلكات نتيجة الحوادث التي لا تزال تحدث وتصدر احصائيات بها. وتقوم بإجراء اختبارات تصدر عنها تقييمات لسيارات الركوب المعروفة, وكذلك لبعض المنتجات الخاصة بالسيارات مثل مقاعد السيارات للأطفال. رابطة (معهد) التأمين لسلامة الطرق السريعة
It is the professional association for individuals working in the motor industry. The Institute is the Sector Skills Council for the automotive retail industry and the governing body for the Automotive Technician Accreditation (ATA) scheme Institute of the Motor Industry IMI Dept
معهد صناعة السيارات
It is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement. Inch is defined to be exactly 25.4 mm. There are 12 inches in a foot and therefore 36 inches in a yard Inch in Units Dimensions
هي وحدة قياس طول في النظام الإمبريالي ونظام الولايات المتحدة العرفي. تعرف البوصة بإنها 25.4 مم. هناك 12 بوصة في القدم, وبالتالي 36 بوصة في الياردة بوصة
IRS, as the name implies, has the rear wheels independently sprung. Independent suspension is a broad term for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of each other. Note that "independent" refers to the motion or path of movement of the wheels/suspension Independent Rear Suspension IRS Suspension
تعليق حر خلفي
IRTE (UK) supports transport engineers throughout their careers and encourages high standards, with an emphasis on safety and best practice Institute of Road Transport Engineers IRTE Dept
يقوم المعهد بمساعدة مهندسي النقل بإنجلترا خلال مراحل عملهم المهني برفع كفاءة العمل, والتركيز على السلامة والأداء الجيد. معهد مهندسي النقل البري
Also known as Intelligent Speed Assistance or Intelligent Speed Advice and Intellignet Speed Alerting, is any system that constantly monitors vehicle speed and the local speed limit on a road and implements an action when the vehicle is detected to be exceeding the speed limit Intelligent Speed Adaptation ISA Safety
موائم السرعة الذكي
The ISC (Idle Speed Control) system is provided with a circuit that bypasses the throttle valve, and the air volume drawn in from the bypass circuit is controlled by the ISCV (Idle Speed Control Valve). The ISCV uses the signal from the engine ECU to control the engine at the optimum idling speed at all times. The ISC system consists of the ISCV, engine ECU, and various sensors and switches Idle Speed Control system ISC Control
نظام التحكم في سرعة الحمل الخالي
It is part of ISC (Idle Speed Control) system which is provided with bypasses the throttle valve. The air volume drawn in from the bypass circuit is controlled by the ISCV (Idle Speed Control Valve). The ISCV uses the signal from the engine ECU to control the engine at the optimum idling speed at all times Idle Speed Control Valve ISCV Control Engine
صمام التحكم في سرعة الحمل الخالي
An ISG, also known as "integrated starter-alternator", combines the role of the starter and alternator into one unit Integrated Starter/Generator ISG
نظام مدمج من بادئ الحركة/ والشاحن
It is a voluntary, non-treaty federation of standards setting bodies of some 130 countries. Founded in 1946-47 in Geneva as a UN agency, it promotes development of standardization and related activities to facilitate international trade in goods and services, and cooperation on economic, intellectual, scientific, and technological aspects International Organization For Standardization ISO Dept
المنظمة العالمية للتوحيد والقياس
Input speed sensor (ISS), also known as a turbine shaft speed sensor (TSS), which is used to tell the control unit the rotational speed of the input shaft or torque converter. By using information from it and the output speed sensor (OSS) sensor, the control unit can make the necessary adjustments to allow the vehicle to run efficiently and shift smoothly Input Speed Sensor ISS Sensors
حساس سرعة الدخول
They are advanced applications which, without embodying intelligence as such, aim to provide innovative services relating to different modes of transport and traffic management and enable various users to be better informed and make safer, more coordinated, and 'smarter' use of transport networks Intelligent transport systems ITS
نظم النقل الذكية
This system was previously called the "Intelligent Transportation System" ("ITS").an intelligent transportation system, in which vehicles and highways will exchange information through a two-way communication system. The automated highways will have a set of lanes on which vehicles with specialized sensors and wireless communications systems could travel under computer control at closely spaced intervals Intelligent Vehicle Highway System IVHS
نظام الطرق السريعة للتعامل مع المركبات الذكية
It is a wheeled vehicle with a drivetrain that allows all wheels to receive torque from several motors independent of each other. This term is coined to identify those electric vehicles whereby each wheel is driven by its own individual electric motor Individual-wheel drive IWD Transmission Vehicle Types
سيارة لها دفع مستقل لكل عجلة, عن طريق موتور متصل بكل عجلة. وهو يخص السيارات الكهربائية حيث يركب موتور كهربائي على كل عجلة دفع مستقل للعجلات
Energy unit (1 Joule = 1 Newton meter). It is a derived unit of energy, work, or amount of heat in the International System of Units. It is equal to the energy expended (or work done) in applying a force of one newton through a distance of one metre (1 newton metre or N•m), or in passing an electric current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm for one second. It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule Joule J Units
وحدة قياس الطاقة, الشغل ( 1 جول = 1 نيوتن متر) جول
It is the Japanese standards organization for tires, rims and valves. It is analogous to T&RA and ETRTO Japanese Automobile Tire Manufacturers Association JATMA Dept
جمعية تصنيع الإطارات اليابانية
Kilo is the SI prefix for a factor of ten to the power 3, kilo = 1000 Kilo k Units
هو بادئة في الوحدات العالمية تساوي 1000, كيلو= 1000 كيلو
The bulk modulus (K) describes volumetric elasticity, or the tendency of an object's volume to deform when under pressure; it is defined as volumetric stress over volumetric strain, and is the inverse of compressibility. The bulk modulus is an extension of Young's modulus to three dimensions Bulk modulus K (1
معامل المرونة
The kelvin is a unit of measurement for temperature. It is one of the seven base units in the International System of Units (SI) and is assigned the unit symbol K. The Kelvin scale is an absolute, thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics. The absolute zero (0 K) equivalent to −273.15 °C (−459.67 °F Kelvin K (2 Units
مقياس درجة الحرارة كيلفن
Toyota also demonstrated its Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System (KDSS). By allowing the decoupling of the front and rear stabilizer bars, KDSS allows greater suspension articulation (movement, that is) off-road. The KDSS-assisted truck was able to keep all its tires in contact with the ground due to the greater suspension travel afforded by the system, while the one with KDSS switched off has a rear tire clawing at thin air. Another benefit of KDSS is that it allows larger stabilizer bars for improved on-road handling via decreased body roll Kinetic Dynamic Suspension System KDSS Suspension
نظام الديناميكي الحركي للتعليق
It is an automotive system for recovering a moving vehicle's kinetic energy under braking. The recovered energy is stored in a reservoir (for example a flywheel or a battery) for later use under acceleration. This contrasts with conventional braking systems, where the excess kinetic energy is converted to heat by friction in the brake linings and therefore wasted Kinetic Energy Recovery System KERS
هو نظام يستخدم في السيارات لتحويل طاقة الحركة للسيارة أثناء الفرامل إلى صورة أخرى من صور الطاقة يمكن الاستفادة منها. تلك الطاقة المستعادة تستخدم لتسارع السيارة مباشرة أو تخزن أما في حذافة (خزان ميكانيكي) أو بطارية (خزان كهربائي) لاستخدامها لاحقا عند الحاجة. ويختلف هذا النظام عن النظام التقليدي للفرامل, عند استخدام النظام التقليدي تتحول طاقة حركة السيارة إلى طاقة حرارية نتيجة الاحتكاك وتخرج للجو في شكل حرارة لا يمكن الاستفادة منها. نظام استعادة طاقة الحركة
The kilogram or kilogramme (SI unit symbol: kg; SI dimension symbol: M), is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK). The gram was originally defined as the mass of one cubic centimeter of water at 4°C, making the kilogram equal to the mass of one liter of water kilogram kg Units Dimensions
كيلوجرام كيلوجرام (كجم)
The kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for 1000). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world kilometer km Units Dimensions
كيلومتر, 1000 متر وحدة قياس للمسافة كيلومتر (كم)
The kilometre per hour (American English: kilometer per hour) is a unit of speed, expressing the number of kilometres travelled in one hour. The unit symbol is km/h or km·h−1, however, it is also commonly referred to as kph in English-speaking countries. Worldwide, it is the most commonly used unit of speed on road signs and car speedometers Kilometres per hour km/h Units
وحدة قياس السرعة, عدد الكليومترات المقطوعة في زمن ساعة كيلومتر في الساعة
It is a system where the function of using a key to operate, start, stop, or entry is replaced by a button, keypad, remote handheld device or automatically by proximity without contact Keyless Operation System KOS Control
نظام التشغيل بدون مفتاح
The king pin inclination or KPI (also called steering axis inclination or SAI). The kingpin is set at an angle relative to the true vertical line, as viewed from the front or back of the vehicle. It is non-adjustable. This has an important effect on the steering, making it tend to return to the straight ahead or center position. A second effect of the kingpin inclination is to set the scrub radius of the steered wheel King pin inclination KPI Suspension
ميل البنز الرئيسي (ويمسى أيضا ميل محور التوجيه). هي الزاوية التي يعملها البنز الرئيسي مع الرأسي, عند النظر إليه من مقدمة السيارة أو من الخلف. وهي زاوية ثابتة غير قابلة للضبط. هذه الزاوية لها تأثير هام بالنسبة للتوجيه, بحيث تتسبب في عودة عجلات التوجيه إلى الأمام بعد الانحراف إلى اليمن أو اليسار. وكذلك تحديد نصف قطر الاحتكاك لعجلة التوجيه ميل البنز الرئيسي
The knock (detonation) sensor is mounted on the engine block. It detects engine knock and sends a voltage signal to the ECM. The ECM uses The Knock Sensor signal to control timing Knock Sensor KS Sensors
يركب حساس الدق على جسم المحرك. يقوم الحساس باستشعار دق المحرك ويقوم بإرسال إشارة جهد كهربائي إلى وحدة التحكم الإليكترونية/ المحرك. تقوم الوحدة باستخدام إشارة الحساس للتحكم في توقيت الإشعال حساس الدق
The kilowatt is equal to one thousand watts. This unit is typically used to express the output power of engines and the power of electric motors, tools, machines, and heaters. It is also a common unit used to express the electromagnetic power output of broadcast radio and television transmitters. One kilowatt is approximately equal to 1.34 horsepower. A surface area of one square meter on Earth receives typically one kilowatt of sunlight from the sun; on a clear day at midday kilowatt kW Units
كيلووات (كيلوواط) يساوي 1000 وات (واط). وهي وحدة تستخدم للتعبير عن قدرة خرج المحرك وقدرة محرك الكهرباء, العدة, الأجهزة, والسخانات. وهي تستخدم كوحدة متعارف عليها للتعبير عن انتاج الطاقة الكهرومغناطيسية لأجهزة البث الإذاعي والبث التليفزيوني. الكيلووات يساوي تقريبا 1.34 حصان. مساحة متر مربع على الأرض تتلقي عادة ما يقرب من 1 كيلووات من أشعة الشمس, في يوم صاف بمنتصف النهار. كيلووات (كيلوواط)
The kilowatt hour, or kilowatt-hour, is a unit of energy equal to 1,000 watt-hours, or 3.6 megajoules. If the energy is being transmitted or used at a constant rate (power) over a period of time, the total energy in kilowatt-hours is the product of the power in kilowatts and the time in hours. The kilowatt-hour is commonly used as a billing unit for energy delivered to consumers by electric utilities kilowatt hour kWh, kW.h, KW h Units
كيلووات (كيلوواط) ساعة أو كيلووات- ساعة, هي وحدة للطاقة تساوي 1,000 وات- ساعة, أو 3.6 ميجاجول. في حالة نقل الطاقة أو استخدامها بمعدل ثابت (قدرة) على مدار مدة زمنية معينة, فإن مقدار الطاقة الإجمالية بوحدة كيلووات- ساعة هي حاصل ضرب قيمة القدرة بالكيلووات ومقدار الزمن بالساعة. وتستخدم وحدة كيلووات- ساعة كوحدة محاسبة للطاقة المستهلكة بواسطة المرافق والمعدات الكهربائية. كيلووات ساعة
A liter (litre) is a metric unit of measure for volume. It is a non-SI metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre Liter l Units
اللتر هو مقياس للحجم مستخدم مع الوحدات المترية.هو ليس وحدة قياس عالمية, واحد لتر يساوي 1 ديسمتر مكعب, 1000 سنتيمتر مكعب أو يساوي 1/1000 متر مكعب. لتر
The direction or position on the left side Left L
الاتجاه أو الوضع في الجانب الأيسر يسار
It is the unit of weight (and therefore force) used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement. The unit is descended from the Roman libra (hence the abbreviation "lb"). The pound mass is equal to 0.45359237 kilogram Pound lb Units
The LBE concept refers to engine operation that is leaner (higher air to fuel mass ratio) than stoichiometric (chemically correct air-fuel ratio). The amount of work done during the expansion process in a lean-burn engine is relatively large (due to lower cycle temperature), resulting in a proportionally higher thermal efficienc lean-burn engine LBE Engine
محرك يحرق وقود فقير
The Lane Change Assistant or the Blind Spot Detection systems continuously monitor the rear blind spots on both sides of the vehicle using 2 radar systems fixed at the rear corners. This system warns the driver visually if changing the lane is not safe at that moment lane Change Assistant LCA Safety
مساعدة تغيير المسار
A "Liquid Crystal Display" is a type of electronic display that forms opaque or dull-colored letters or numbers on various backgrounds. LCD displays are popular for digital dashboards, but they are not as readable in direct sunlight as LED displays Liquid Crystal Display LCD
شاشة عرض
It is a mechanism designed to warn a driver when the vehicle begins to move out of its lane (unless a turn signal is on in that direction) on freeways and arterial roads. These systems are designed to minimize accidents by addressing the main causes of collisions: driver error, distractions and drowsiness Lain Departure Warning (System LDW (LDWS Safety
هو نظام لتحذير السائق عندما تخرج (تغادر) السيارة عن المسار (الحارة المرورية) الذي تسير فيها (إلا في حالة تشغيل إشارة التحويد (تغيير الاتجاه) في اتجاه الخروج). الغرض من ذلك النظام تقليل الحوادث الناجمة من التصادم بسبب خطأ السائق, عدم الانتباه, التشتت, والنعاس. تحذير مغادرة الحارة (المسار)
A light emitting diode emits light when current is passed through it in the forward direction. A "Light Emitting Diode" is an electronic light bulb of sorts that produces colored light. You’ll find LEDs used in the center high mounted stop light on many vehicles, and used as indicator lights in some instrumentation. LEDs are also used in some vehicle speed sensors and in some electronic ignitions Light Emitting Diode LED Light
دايود يضيء عند مرور التيار الكهربائي به
It is a motor vehicle that emits relatively low levels of motor vehicle emissions Low emission vehicle LEV Vehicle Types
هي مركبة ذات أنبعاثات أقل من مستوى إنبعاثات المركبات الأخرى مركبة ذات إنبعاثات منخفضة
A left-hand drive is a vehicle which has the steering wheel on the left side, and is designed to be used in countries where people drive on the right-hand side of the road Left-Hand Drive LHD Vehicle Types
القيادة على اليسار
It is natural gas (predominantly methane, CH4) that has been converted to liquid form for ease of storage or transport. It takes up about 1/600th the volume of natural gas in the gaseous state. It is odorless, colorless, non-toxic and non-corrosive. The (volume-based) energy density of LNG is approximately 2.4 times greater than that of CNG which makes it economical to transport natural gas by ship in the form of LNG. The energy density of LNG is comparable to propane and ethanol but is only 60 percent that of diesel and 70 percent that of gasoline Liquefied Natural Gas LNG Fuel
غاز طبيعي مسال
Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, is a flammable mixture of hydrocarbon gases used as a fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles Liquefied Petroleum Gas LPG Fuel
غاز بترولي مسال
It is a type of automotive differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in angular velocity of the output shafts, but imposes a mechanical bound on the disparity. In an automobile, such limited-slip differentials are sometimes used in place of a standard differential, where they convey certain dynamic advantages, at the expense of greater complexity Limited-Slip Differential LSD Transmission
التروس الفروقية محدودة الانزلاق
LSPV automatically regulates rear brake effectiveness in response to the changes in load. This system detects changes in weight of payload and automatically regulates the effectiveness of the rear brakes in response to the weight the vehicle is carrying Load Sensing Proportioning Valve LSPV Brakes
صمام تناسب الاحساس بالحمل
It is the fundamental unit of length in the International System of Units (SI meter, metre m Units Dimensions
هي وحدة أساسية للطول في نظام الوحدات العالمية متر (م)
Milli is the SI prefix for a factor of ten to the power -3 milli m Units Dimensions
هو بادئة في الوحدات العالمية تساوي 1/1000, ميلي= 1/1000 ميلي (م
Tire rating for mud and snow M+S, MS, M/S or M and S Mud and Snow M+S Tire
إطار يمكنه السير في الطين والثلوج طين و ثلوج
The majority of vehicles on the road today are equipped with a mass air flow sensor (MAF), also commonly referred to as an air flow meter. The mass airflow sensor is placed in the stream of intake air to measure the amount of air entering the engine and supplies this information to the engine control unit (ECU). The ECU uses this information to calculate engine load, which the ECU uses along with information provided by the oxygen sensor(s) to precisely control the engine’s air / fuel ratio Mass Air flow sensor MAF Sensors
حساس كتلة انسياب الهواء
The Manifold Absolute Pressure sensor measures changes in the intake manifold pressure resulting from engine load and speed changes. The computer sends a 5-volt reference signal to the MAP sensor. As pressure changes in the intake manifold occur, the electrical resistance of the MAP sensor also changes. By monitoring the sensor output voltage, the computer can determine the manifold absolute pressure. The higher the MAP voltage output the lower the engine vacuum, which requires more fuel. The lower the MAP voltage output the higher the engine vacuum, which requires less fuel. Under certain conditions, the MAP sensor is also used to measure barometric pressure. This allows the computer to automatically adjust for different altitudes. The computer uses the MAP sensor to control fuel delivery and ignition timing Manifold absolute pressure (sensor MAP Sensors
الضغط المطلق للعادم
Also caled Air Charge temperature (ACT) sensors, and Intake Air Temperature (IAT) sensors. The MAT measures air temperature through changing resistance and sends this information to the onboard computer. The computer uses this and other inputs to calculate the correct amount of fuel delivered Manifold Air Temperature (sensor MAT Sensors
ويطلق عليه أيضا حساس درجة حرارة شحنة الهواء, وحساس درجة حرارة مدخل الهواء. ويقيس درجة حرارة الهواء عن طريق تغيير المقاومة ويقوم بإرسال تلك المعلومات إلى حاسب السيارة. يوقوم الحاسب باستخدام تلك المعلومات ومعلومات من حساسات أخرى لحساب كمية الهواء المطلوبة درجة حرارة مجمع الهواء
Cylinder Deactivation, Displacement On Demand (DOD), or Variable Cylinder Management Multiple Displacement System MDS Engine
هي قياس للفاعلية التي يؤديها النظام الميكانيكي. وهي في الغالب تكون النسبة بين القدرة الخارجة أو الشغل الخارج للنظام الميكانيكي(نظام نقل الحركة أو معدة) إلى القدرة الداخلة أو الشغل الخارج, وبسبب الاحتكاك (القدرة المفقودة), تكون الكفاءة دائما أقل من واحد نظام السعة المتغيرة
It measures the effectiveness with which a mechanical system performs. It is the ratio of the power delivered or work output by a mechanical system (i.e. transmission or mechanism) to the power supplied to it or work input, and because of friction (power loss), this efficiency is always less than one, , (mechanical efficiency = output power/input power = (input power – power loss)/input power = 1 – power loss/input power Mechanical Efficiency ME
إنه يقيس فاعلية النظام الميكانيكي, وهو النسبة بين القدرة الخارجة, أو الشغل الخارج, للنظام الميكانيكي (نظام نقل القدرة, أو الآلة) إلى القدرة الداخلة أو الشغل الداخل, وبسبب الاحتكاك (القدرة المفقودة), تكون هذه الكفاءة دائما أقل من الواحد (الكفاءة الميكانيكية= القدرة الخارجة/ القدرة الداخلة = (القدرة الداخلة- القدرة الضائعة في الاحتكاك)/ القدرة الداخلة = 1 – (القدرة الضائعة في الاحتكاك/ القدرة الداخلة)). الكفاءة الميكانيكية
It is a type of fuel injection system that has one injector for each engine cylinder. Each injector sprays its fuel directly into the intake port in the cylinder head. Multi-port fuel injection is considered to be the "hot" setup because it provides better cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution for more power Multi-port Fuel Injection MFI (MPFI/MPI Fuel
حقن متعدد الثغرات
A mile is a unit of length most commonly equivalent to 5,280 feet or 1,760 yards (about 1,609 metres). The mile of 5,280 feet is also known as the statute mile or land mile to distinguish it from the nautical mile of approximately 6,076 feet -1,852 metres exactly Mile mi Units Dimensions
Also known as a check engine light, is a tell-tale to indicate malfunction of a computerized engine management system. It is found on the instrument panel of most automobiles Malfunction Indicator Lamp MIL
تسمى ايضا لمبة فحص المحرك وهي تدل على عطل نظام إدارة المحرك بالحاسب. وتوجد في لوحة مبينات (عدادات) معظم السيارات لمبة بيان العطل
Is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length. It is equal to 1,000 micrometres and 1,000,000 nanometres. There are 25.4 mm in one inch millimetre (millimeter mm Units Dimensions
مليمتر (مم)
It is the distance (in miles) a vehicle can travel on one gallon of fuel. The fuel efficiency of vehicle can be expressed in more ways: fuel economy (Imperial and US customary units) is measured in unit of distance travelled (miles) per unit volume of fuel (gallon)- mile/gallon. For vehicles that operate on fuels that cannot be measured in gallons (electricity, natural gas, hydrogen), the gasoline gallon equivalent is employed to give a reference point for comparison. Or can be expressed in fuel consumption (metric units), which is the amount of fuel sued per unit distance (liters per 100 kilometers- L/100 km). The fuel efficiency depends on several factors as engine size and type of transmission system, car weight and shape upon other things Mile per gallon MPG (mpg Units
هي المسافة المقطوعة (بالميل) التي يمكن للسيارة أن تقطعها باستخدام جالون واحد من الوقود. كفاءة الوقود يمكن التعبير عنها بأكثر من طريقة: اقتصاد الوقود للسيارة (الوحدات الإنجليزية والأمريكية) يقاس بوحدة المسافة (ميل) لكل وحدة حجم من الوقود (جالون)- ميل/ جالون. للسيارات التي تستخدم أنواع أخرى من الوقود والتي لا يمكن أن تقاس بالجالون (كهرباء, غاز طبيعي, هيدروجين), يستخدم المعدل المكافئ لجالون البنزين لإعطاء مقياس مرجعي للمقارنة. أو يمكن التعبير عنه بمعدل استهلاك الوقود (الوحدات العالمية), الذي هو مقدار الوقود المستخدم في وحدة المسافة (لتر لكل 100 كيلومتر- لتر/100 كم). كفاءة الوقود تعتمد على العديد من العوامل, كحجم المحرك, نظام نقل الحركة, وزن السيارة وشكلها مع العديد من العوامل الأخرى. ميل لكل جالون- ميل/جالون
It injects fuel into the intake ports just upstream of each cylinder's intake valve, rather than at a central point within an intake manifold. MPFI (or just MPI) systems can be sequential, in which injection is timed to coincide with each cylinder's intake stroke; batched, in which fuel is injected to the cylinders in groups, without precise synchronization to any particular cylinder's intake stroke; or simultaneous, in which fuel is injected at the same time to all the cylinders Multipoint (Multiport) injection, Multipoint (Multiport) fuel injection MPI (MFI, MPFI Fuel
بخاخات/ حاقن الوقود متعددة النقاط
It is a type of van designed for personal use. They are typically either two-box or one box designs for maximum interior volume – and are taller than a sedan, hatchback, or a station wagon. Worldwide, multi-purpose vehicles are also marketed as minivans, people-carriers, people-movers, or multi-utility vehicles -MUVs Multi-Purpose Vehicle MPV Vehicle Types
مركبة متعددة الأغراض
The Motor Sports Association (MSA, formerly known as RAC MSA), is the official governing body of motorsport in the United Kingdom. As the governing body, the MSA is responsible for the governance and administration of all major forms of motor sports in the UK, controlling the technical and sporting rules across the various disciplines Motor Sports Association MSA Dept Racing
جمعية رياضة السيارات
Often known as the "sticker price," MSRP refers to the recommended amount that a manufacturer thinks a dealer should charge for a particular vehicle make and model. MSRP was designed to help create a standard for prices among various retailers. It is also meant to indicate the price of a car before fees for taxes, shipping and registration are applied. MSRP usually excludes add-on features such as moon or sunroofs and certain stereo components Manufacturers Suggested Retail Price MSRP
غالبا ما تعرف بـ "السعر الملصق", وهو يدل على السعر المقترح من المصنع للموزع لبييع ذلك الموديل لتلك السيارة. الغرض من سعر التجزئة المقترح من المصنع صمم لمساعدة لوضع مقياس للسعر بين الموزعين المختلفين. ويقصد به سعر السيارة قبل إضافة مبالغ الضرائب, والشحن, والتسجيل. السعر المقترح غالبا ما يطرح منه سعر الإضافات مثل السقف الزجاجي, أو بعض أنظمة الاستريو, وأنظمة التحكم الإليكتروني. سعر التجزئة المقترح من المصنع
Unit of measuring force, 1 Newton = 1 kg m/s.s Newton N (1 Units
وحدة قياس القوة, 1 نيوتن = 1 كجم متر/ ث.ث نيوتن
It is a transmission shift, when putting the transmission into the natural shift, the engine is disengaged from the wheels Neutral N (2
نقلة الحياد
The North American Automobile Trade Association (NAATA) is a not-for-profit association of vehicle dealers that buy and sell vehicles across international borders The North American Automobile Trade Association NAATA Dept
.هي جمعية لا ربحية مكونة من وكلاء السيارات الذين يقومون بشراء وبيع السيارات في السوق العالمية اتحاد تجار السيارات لأمريكا الشمالية
It is the organization that sanctions stock car races throughout the U.S. The organization oversee racing, to make rules and to make sure that the racecars met uniform specifications. NASCAR is the largest sanctioning body of stock car racing in the United States. The three largest racing series sanctioned by NASCAR are the Sprint Cup Series, the Nationwide Series, and the Camping World Truck Series. It also oversees other auto racing events. NASCAR sanctions over 1500 races at over 100 tracks in 39 US states and Canada. NASCAR has presented exhibition races in Japan, Mexico, and in Australia National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing NASCAR Dept Racing
هي أكبر هيئة لإدارة سباق سيارات الركوب بالولايات المتحدة, تقوم بالإشراف وإدارة السباقات, ووضع القوانين المنظمة للسباقات, والتأكد من أن المتسابقين يتبعوا مواصفات موحدة. أكبر ثلاث سباقات تحت إدارة وأشرف الهيئة هي كأس سلسلة سبرينت, سلسلة ناشينويد, وسلسلة تخييم الشاحنات الدولية, بالإضافة إلى سباقات أخرى. تقوم ناسكار بالإشراف على 1500 سياق على أكثر من 100 حلبة في 39 ولاية أمريكية وكندا. كما تقوم ناسكار بتقديم سباقات استعراضية في اليابان, والمكسيك, واستراليا الرابطة القومية لسباق سيارات الركوب المعدلة- ناسكار
It is a drag racing governing body, which sets rules in drag racing and hosts events all over the United States and Canada.The NHRA Mello Yello Drag Racing Series is the Top Division of the NHRA. It consists of five professional classes:Top Fuel Dragster, Funny Car, Pro Stock, Pro Stock Motorcycle, Pro Modified National Hot Rod Association NHRA Dept Racing
الرابطة الوطنية للسيارات المعدلة
This is the government agency that is responsible for making and policing safety rules for all vehicles. NHTSA is the agency that can order a vehicle manufacturer to issue a safety recall National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA Dept Safety
هذا وكالة حكومية أمريكية مسؤولة عن كتابة ووضع شروط قواعد السلامة لجميع المركبات. ولها الحق بأن تأمر الشركات المصنعة للسيارات بإصدار استدعاء للسيارات بسبب مشاكل السلامة. الإدارة القومية لسلامة المرور على الطرق السريعة
It is a unit of torque (also called "moment") in the SI system. The symbolic form is N m or N•m. One newton metre, sometimes hyphenated newton-meter, is equal to the torque resulting from a force of one newton applied perpendicularly to a moment arm which is one meter long Newton meter N m Units
وحدة العزم نيوتن متر
NOx is a generic term for mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide). They are produced from the reaction of nitrogen and oxygen gases in the air during combustion, especially at high temperatures. NOx react to form smog and acid rain Nitrogen oxides NOx Substance
أكاسيد النيتروجين هو مصطلح عام لأكاسيد النيتروجين: الأحادي (أكسيد النيتريك) والثنائي (ثاني أكسيد النيتروجين). والتي تنتج نتيجة تفاعل غازات النيتروجين والأكسجين الموجودة بالهواء أثناء الاحتراق داخل المحرك، خاصة عند درجات الحرارة العالية. أكاسيد النيتروجين تتفاعل لتشكل الضباب الدخاني والأمطار الحمضية. أكاسيد النيتروجين
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), located in Golden, Colorado, is the United States' primary laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is a government-owned, contractor-operated facility, and is funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL Dept
المعمل القومي للطاقة المتجددة
It is an independent U.S. government investigative agency responsible for civil transportation accident investigation. In this role, the NTSB investigates and reports on aviation accidents and incidents, certain types of highway crashes, ship and marine accidents, pipeline incidents and railroad accidents National Transportation Safety Board NTSB Dept
هو وكالة حكومية أمريكية مستقلة مسئولة عن التحقيق في حوادث النقل المدني. وفي هذا السياق تكون مسئولة عن التحقيق وكتابة التقارير عن حوادث ووقائع الطيران, وبعض أنواع التصادم على الطرق السريعة, حوادث السفن والملاحة البحرية, وقائع خطوط الأنابيب, وحوادث القطارات. المجلس القومي لسلامة المواصلات
is an Indonesian government agency charged with the investigation of air, land, rail, and marine transportation safety deficiencies.The NTSC emphasizes that the sole objective of its activities is to prevent recurrence of accidents, not to assign blame or liability National Transportation Safety Commettee NTSC Dept
اللجنة القومية لسلامة المواصلات
It is also known as noise and vibration (N and V), is the study and modification of the noise and vibration characteristics of vehicles, particularly cars and trucks. Interior NVH deals with noise and vibration experienced by the occupants of the cabin, while exterior NVH is largely concerned with the noise radiated by the vehicle, and includes drive-by noise testing Noise, Vibration and Harshness NVH
المعروف أيضا باسم الضوضاء والاهتزاز، التي هي دراسة لتعديل خصائص الضوضاء والاهتزاز بالمركبات، وخاصة السيارات والشاحنات. الشق الداخلي له يتعامل مع الضوضاء والاهتزاز التي يمر بها ركاب المقصورة، في حين الشق الخارجي يهتم إلى حد كبير بالضوضاء المنبعثة من المركبات. ضوضاء, اهتزاز, عدم الراحة
At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dioxygen, a colorless, odorless, tasteless diatomic gas with the formula O2. This substance is an important part of the atmosphere, and is necessary to sustain most terrestrial life. Oxygen gas is the second most common component of the Earth's atmosphere, taking up 20.8% of its volume and 23.1% of its mass. Oxygen is a key reactant in the process of combustion. Combustion (burning) occurs when a fuel reacts rapidly with oxygen to produce combustion (oxidation) products (exhaust gasses) and gives off heat Oxygen O2 Substance
Ozone is a molecule composed of three oxygen atoms. The chemical symbol of ozone is O3 as the symbol of oxygen atoms is O. Ozone is also called trioxygen. Ozone makes up only 0.6 parts per million (ppm) of the atmosphere . Most ozone found in our atmosphere is formed by an interaction between oxygen molecules and ultraviolet radiation emitted by the sun. Ozone is important to planet Earth. There is a portion of the stratosphere with a high concentration of ozone, called the ozone layer. The ozone layer filters out damaging ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. However, ozone is toxic to animals and plants above concentrations of about 0.1 ppm Ozone O3 Substance
It is an automotive term referring to a vehicle's self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or repair technician access to the status of the various vehicle subsystems On Board Diagnostics OBD Electronics
جهاز مركب بالسيارة لتشخيص الأعطال
On-Board Diagnostics Second Generation (OBDII) is a computerized system required on 1996 and newer model year vehicles (GVW 8500 lbs. or less). OBD-II is an improvement over OBD-I in both capability and standardization On Board Diagnostics II OBD II Electronics
جهاز مركب بالسيارة لتشخيص الأعطال, مركب في معظم سيارات البنزين موديلات ما بعد سنة 1996 وبه توحيد للمصطلحات والتوصيلات بين الموديلات المختلفة. وهو تحديث لسابقه من ناحية القدرات والتوحيد جهاز (متطور) مركب بالسيارة لتشخيص الأعطال
It is often refers to the external diameter of a pipe like shaped geometry, it is equal to the inside diameter plus the double pipe wall thickness Outside Diameter O.D- OD Dimensions
القطر الخارجي
Overdrive is a term used to describe the operation of an automobile cruising at sustained speed with reduced engine speed, leading to better fuel consumption, lower noise and lower wear Over Drive (transmission OD Transmission
نقلة فوق المباشر (ناقل الحركة)
Genuine or (OE) Original Equipment is basically the original part used by the car manufacturer on the car when it left the factory. That part could have been made under contract by an OEM supplier, like Bosch, Mann, Hella or other OEM supplier, for instillation on the new car Original equipment OE
المعدة الأصلية
OEM refers to the company that originally manufactured the product. When referring to automotive parts, OEM designates a replacement part made by the manufacturer of the original part Original Equipment Manufacturer OEM
بالنسبة لقطع غيار السيارات, فإنها تعني قطعة غيار مصنعة من المصنع الأصلي صانع المعدات الأصلية
In an overhead cam engine (OHC), the camshaft is located in the top of the cylinder head. Push rods are NOT needed to operate the rockers and valves. With the cam in head , the number of valve train parts is reduced. Also the valves can placed at an angle to improve breathing. The OHC increase high speed efficiency and power output. The OHC can be single overhead cam SOHC, or dual overhead cam DOHC Over Head Cam OHC Engine
عمود كامة علوي
The unit of electrical resistance measurement. One ohm is the resistance that will allow one ampere to flow when pushed by one volt (Resistance measuring unit) ohm Units
هي وحدة قياس المقاومة. واحد أوم هو المقاومة التي تسمح بمرور واحد أمبير تحت تأثير جهد كهربائي واحد فولت (وحدة قياس المقاومة الكهربائية)
Engines with the camshaft in the block are called Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines Over head valve OHV Engine
المحركات التي لها عمود كامة في كتلة الاسطوانات تسمي محركات ذات صمامات علوية برأس الأسطوانة, وتعمل الصمامات عن طريق أذرع دفع (متصلة بالكامة), والتي تحرك أذرع متأرجحة لدفع الصمام. صمام علوي
It is the international trade association representing the interests of independent owner-operators and professional drivers on all issues that affect truckers. The over 150,000 members of OOIDA are men and women in all 50 states and Canada who collectively own and/or operate more than 240,000 individual heavy-duty trucks and small truck fleets. The mission of the Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association, Inc. is to serve owner-operators, small fleets and professional truckers; to work for a business climate where truckers are treated equally and fairly; to promote highway safety and responsibility among all highway users; and to promote a better business climate and efficiency for all truck operators Owner-Operator Independent Drivers Association OOIDA Dept
جمعية السائقين المستقلة للملاك والمشغلين
An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving off paved or gravel surface Off-Road Vehicle ORV Vehicle Types
هي أي نوع من المركبات قادر على السير خارج الطرق المرصوفة والمعبدة سيارة خارج الطرق
It is an agency of the United States Department of Labor. Congress established the agency under the Occupational Safety and Health Act. OSHA's mission is to "assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance". The agency is also charged with enforcing a variety of whistleblower statutes and regulation Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA Dept
إدارة السلامة المهنية والصحة
An output speed sensor (OSS), also known as a vehicle speed sensor (VSS), is what tells your vehicle’s control unit how fast the vehicle is going. Your vehicle’s speedometer and odometer rely on the information from this sensor. Some vehicles also have a transmission input speed sensor (ISS), also known as a turbine shaft speed sensor (TSS), which is used to tell the control unit the rotational speed of the input shaft or torque converter. By using information from both sensors, the control unit can make the necessary adjustments to allow the vehicle to run efficiently and shift smoothly output speed sensor OSS Sensors
حساس سرعة الخروج
EPA's Office of Transportation and Air Quality protects public health and the environment by regulating air pollution from motor vehicles, engines, and the fuels used to operate them, and by encouraging travel choices that minimize emissions. These "mobile sources" include cars and light trucks, heavy trucks and buses, nonroad engines, equipment, and vehicles Office of Transportation and Air Quality OTAQ Dept
مكتب النقل وجودة الهواء
Unit of pressure (1 Pa = 1 N/m2), (1 MPa = 1000,000 Pa = 1 N/mm2) Pascal Pa Units
وحدة ضغط (1 بسكال = 1 نيوتن/ المتر المربع), ( 1 ميجا بسكال = 1000,000 بسكال = 1 نيوتن/ مليمتر المربع) بسكال
It also known as power steering or steering assist system, it helps drivers steer by augmenting steering effort of the steering wheel. Hydraulic or electric actuators add controlled energy to the steering mechanism, so the driver needs to provide only modest effort regardless of conditions. Power steering helps considerably when a vehicle is stopped or moving slowly. Also, power steering provides some feedback of forces acting on the front wheels to give an ongoing sense of how the wheels are interacting with the road; this is typically called -road feel Power Assisted Steering PAS Steering
التوجيه المؤزر
PCM is a computer that manages engine and power train systems. Within engine management, the PCM is responsible for fuel delivery, ignition timing and some emission control devices. All powertrain control modules generate a specific diagnostic code based on the vehicle component that isn't working that can then be read by an electronic diagnostic tool used by mechanics Power control module, Powertrain control module PCM
موديول للتحكم في مجموعة نقل القدرة
The Pre-Collision System uses radar to detect vehicles. If it detects a pending crash, the system alerts drivers to brake. Once the driver applies the brakes, the Pre-Collision System helps by increasing brake power. Should a driver not try to stop, the system will brake anyway, though it won't use as much force Pre-Collision System PCS Safety
يستخدم نظام قبل الاصطدام رادار للكشف عن المركبات التي تسير أمام السيارة. في حالة الكشف على تصادم وشيك، يقوم النظام بتنبيه السائق. في حالة ضغط السائق على الفرامل فإن النظام يقوم بمساعدة السائق عن طريق زيادة قوة الفرامل. في حالة عدم استخدام السائق للفرامل فإن النظام يقوم بتفعيل نظام الفرامل على أي حال ذاتيا، لتقليل سرعة السيارة نظام قبل الاصطدام
The positive crankcase ventilation system pulls the crankcase fumes into the intake manifold so they can be burned before entering the atmosphere. The PCV became stnadard equipment on all vehicles worldwide because of its benefits not only in emissions reduction but also in engine internal cleanlness and oil lifespan Positive crank case ventilation PCV Engine
يعمل نظام التهوية الجبرية لعمود المرفق بسحب الأبخرة الناجمة من عملية الاحتراق والمتسربة من حلقات المكبس إلى علبة عمود المرفق, وأدخالها مع الشحنة المسحوبة إلى الاسطوانات لإعادة احتراقها مع الشحنة بدلا من أخراجها إلى الجو. أصبح نظام التهوية الجبرية لعمود المرفق من المعدات القياسية بالسيارة ليس فقط بسبب تقليل الانبعاثات الضارة من السيارة ولكن للتنظيف الداخلي للمحرك وزيادة العمر التشغيلي للزيت كذلك نظام تهوية علبة عمود المرفق
It is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from an external source of electricity, such as wall sockets, and the electricity stored in the rechargeable battery packs drives or contributes to drive the wheels Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Vehicle types
سيارة تعمل بموتور كهربائي, يمكن شحنها عن طريق مصدر كهربائي خارجي, مثل فيشة , الكهرباء تخزن في بطاريات كهربائية يمكن شحنها, تدفع العجلات أو تساهم في دوران العجل. مركبة / سيارة كهربائية تشحن بمصدر كهربائي خارجي
Port injectors are positioned outside the combustion chamber – between the Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor and the intake valve, with the tip of the injector sitting outside, pointing towards the combustion chamber. With port fuel injectors, the air and fuel are combined outside the combustion chamber, in the intake manifold. From there the mixture flows through the intake tract and the intake valve to the combustion chamber Port Fuel Injection PFI Fuel
حقن الوقود في الاسطوانة عند صمام السحب
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), or plug-in hybrid is a hybrid vehicle which utilizes rechargeable batteries, or another energy storage device, that can be restored to full charge by connecting a plug to an external electric power source (usually a normal electric wall socket). A PHEV shares the characteristics of both a conventional hybrid electric vehicle, having an electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE); and of an all-electric vehicle, having a plug to connect to the electrical grid. Most PHEVs on the road today are passenger cars, but there are also PHEV versions of commercial vehicles and vans, utility trucks, buses, trains, motorcycles, scooters, and military vehicles Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle PHEV Vehicle Types
سيارة مهجنة تشحن بمصدر كهربائي ثابت
This unit reduces the air pressure supply to the front axle of the towing vehicle is de-coupled in order to reduce the braking power and maintain vehicle stability of the now much lighter vehicle Pressure limiting valve PLV Brakes
صمام تحديد الضغط
Particulate matter, also known as particle pollution or soot, is made up of tiny solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. Particles originate from a variety of stationary and mobile sources. The PM main contributor is the exhaust from diesel engines, such as trucks, trains, buses, boats, generators, agricultural pumps, and other sources. PM is linked with respiratory disease, decreased lung function, asthma attacks, heart attacks and premature death. PM is reported in micrograms per cubic meter or µg/m3 Particulate-matter PM Substance
الجسيمات العالقة, وتعرف أيضا بالجسيمات الملوثة أو الهباب, وهي تتكون من جسيمات صلبة متناهية في الصغر وقطرات من السائل موجودة بالهواء. مصدرها العديد من المصادر الثابتة والمتحركة. المصدر الرئيسي لها من غازات محركات الديزل, مثل الشاحنات, والقطارات, والحافلات, والقوارب, والمضخات الزراعية, والمصادر الأخرى. الجسيمات العالقة مسببة لأمراض الجهاز التنفسي, وتقليل أداء الرئة, والمسببة للأزمات التنفسية والقلبية, والموت المبكر. ويقاس تركيزها بميكروجرام في المتر المكعب الجسيمات العالقة
It refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garments or equipment designed to protect the wearer's body from injury or infection. The hazards addressed by protective equipment include physical, electrical, heat, chemicals, biohazards, and airborne particulate matter. Protective equipment may be worn for job-related occupational safety and health purposes, as well as for sports and other recreational activities. "Protective clothing" is applied to traditional categories of clothing, and "protective gear" applies to items such as pads, guards, shields, or masks, and others. The purpose of personal protective equipment is to reduce employee exposure to hazards when engineering and administrative controls are not feasible or effective to reduce these risks to acceptable levels Personal Protective Equipment PPE Safety
معدات الحماية الشخصية
Measure of air pollution. It is common practice to express the quantity of a gaseous pollutant in the air as parts per million Parts per million ppm Units
هي مقياس لتلوث الهواء. من المألوف التعبير عن كمية الغازات الملوثة في الهواء كجزء من المليون أجزاء لكل مليون (قياس التلوث في الهواء)
It is the metric horsepower (power measuring unit) and it referred to as horsepower or hp in the press releases or media coverage of the German, French, Italian, and Japanese automobile companies. British manufacturers often intermix metric horsepower and mechanical horsepower depending on the origin of the engine in question. In 1972, the PS was rendered obsolete by EEC directives, when it was replaced by the kilowatt as the official power measuring unit.[15] It is still in use for commercial and advertising purposes. PS ≡ 75 kgf•m/s ≡ 735.49875 W Metric horsepower PS Units
الحصان المتري (وحدة قياس قدرة), ويشار إليه في بالحصان في البيانات الصحفية أو التغطية الإعلامية لشركات السيارات الألمانية, الفرنسية, والإيطالية, واليابانية. الشركات البريطانية تخلط في استخدام الحصان المتري والحصان الميكانيكي تبعا لأصل المحرك المعني. في سنة 1972, تم الاستغناء عن استخدام الحصان المتري, وتم استبدال وحدة قياس القدرة (حسب الوحدات العالمية) إلى الكيلووات. ومازال الحصان المتري يستخدم في أغراض الدعاية. الحصان المتري = 75 كيلوجرام قوة. متر/ثانية = 735.49875 وات. الحصان المتري
The power split device is the heart of hybrid vehicle; it is a planetary gear, hooks the gasoline engine, generator and electric motor together. It allows the car to operate like a parallel hybrid -- the electric motor can power the car by itself, the gas engine can power the car by itself or they can power the car together. The power split device also allows the car to operate like a series hybrid -- the gasoline engine can operate independently of the vehicle speed, charging the batteries or providing power to the wheels as needed. It also acts as a continuously variable transmission (CVT), eliminating the need for a manual or automatic transmission. Finally, because the power split device allows the generator to start the engine, the car does not need a starter. The electric motor is connected to the ring gear of the gear set. It is also directly connected to the differential, which drives the wheels. The speed the ring gear spin at determines the speed of the car. The generator is connected to the sun gear of the gear set, and the engine is connected to the planet carrier. The speed of the ring gear depends on all three components, so they all have to work together at all times to control the output speed Power Split Device PSD Transmission
هو جهاز يعمل بالسيارة المهجنة، هو عبارة عن مجموعة تروس كوكبية, تصل محرك البنزين، والمحرك الكهربائي والمولد معا. يسمح الجهاز للسيارة أن تعمل مثل هجين على التوازي - المحرك الكهربائي يمكن أن يدفع السيارة بمفرده، كما يمكن لمحرك البنزين دفع السيارة بمفرده أو أنهما يمكنهما دفع السيارة معا. كما يسمح الجهاز للسيارة ان تعمل مثل هجين على التوالي- محرك البنزين يمكن أن يعمل بشكل مستقل عن سرعة السيارة، ويعمل على شحن البطاريات أو توفير الطاقة إلى العجلات حسب الحاجة. كما يعمل الجهاز كناقل حركة متغير باستمرار، مما يلغي الحاجة لناقل الحركة اليدوي أو الذاتي. وأخيرا، الجهاز يسمح للمولد بتشغيل المحرك، مما لا يكون هناك حاجة لبادئ الحركة/ المارش. المحرك الكهربائي يتصل بالترس الحلقي المتصل مع التروس الفرقية لدفع العجلات. لذلك، سرعة دوران الترس الحلقي تحدد سرعة السيارة. المولد متصل بالترس الشمسي, ويرتبط المحرك بحامل التروس الكوكبية. سرعة الترس الحلقي تعتمد على المكونات الثلاثة، حتى انهم يعملن جميعا معا في جميع الأوقات للتحكم في سرعة السيارة. وحدة تقسيم القدرة
It is a unit of pressure or of stress based on avoirdupois units. It is the pressure resulting from a force of one pound-force applied to an area of one square inch Pound per Square Inch PSI (psi Units
رطل على البوصة المربعة
The power steering oil pressure switch is attached to the power steering high-pressure tube and detects a power steering load. When a power steering load is detected, it signals the ECM. The ECM adjusts the idle speed for the increased load Power Steering Pressure Switch PSPS Steering
مفتاح ضغط مؤازر التوجيه
It is a method of generating electrical power by converting sunlight into direct current electricity using semiconducting materials that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. A photovoltaic system employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells to supply usable solar power photovoltaics PV Fuel
هي طريقة لتوليد الطاقة الكهربائية عن طريق تحويل أشعة الشمس إلى كهرباء تيار مباشر باستخدام مواد شبه موصلة لها خاصية كهروضوئية. نظام الخلايا الكهروضوئية يستخدم ألواح شمسية تتألف من عدد من الخلايا الشمسية لتوفير الطاقة الشمسية المستخدمة خلية كهروضوئية
A partial zero emissions vehicle is a vehicle that has zero evaporative emissions from its fuel system. They use a ZEV fuel such as electricity or hydrogen. Examples include plug-in hybrids or hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicles Partial Zero Emission Vehcile PZEV Vehicle Types
مركبات الانبعاثات شبه الصفرية هي السيارة التي لديها صفر انبعاثات التبخر من نظام الوقود. وإنها تستخدم وقود الانبعاث الصفري مثل الكهرباء أو الهيدروجين. وتشمل أمثلة تلك المركبات, المركبات المهجنة التي تشحن بطاريتها من مخرج الكهرباء أو سيارات التي بها محرك احتراق داخلي يعمل بالهيدروجين. مركبة لها إنبعاثات عادم تقارب الصفر
Symbol of electric charge Quantity of electric charge Q
رمز كمية شحنة الكهرباء كمية شحنة الكهرباء
A radial tire (more properly, a radial-ply tire) is a particular design of vehicular tire (in British English, tyre). In this design, the cord plies are arranged at 90 degrees to the direction of travel, or radially (from the centre of the tire.With only radial cords, a radial tire would not be sufficiently rigid at the contact with the ground. To add further stiffness, the entire tire is surrounded by additional belts oriented closer to the direction of travel, but usually at some "spiral" angle. These belts can be made of steel (hence the term steel-belted radial), polyester, or Aramid fibers such as Twaron or Kevlar Radial R (1 Tire
إطار قطري قطري
Rankine is a thermodynamic (absolute) temperature scale.The symbol for degrees Rankine is °R. Rankine degree is defined as equal to one degree Fahrenheit. A temperature of −459.67 °F is exactly equal to 0 °R Rankine R (2 Units
مقياس لدرجة الحرارة المطلقة (الوحدات الإنجليزية) رانكين
It is a transmission shift, which makes the car go backward in the reverse direction Reverse R (3 Transmission
هي احدى نقلات صندوق التروس, التي تجعل السيارة تتحرك للخلف النقلة الخلفية
The direction or position on the right side Right R (4
الاتجاه أو الوضع بالجانب الأيمن يمين
The activities that are classified as R-and-D differ from company to company, but there are two primary models. In one model, the primary function of an R-and-D group (engineers) is to develop new products; in the other model, the primary function of an R-and-D group (industrial scientists) is to discover and create new knowledge about scientific and technological topics for the purpose of uncovering and enabling development of valuable new products, processes, and services Research and Development R&D
الأبحاث والتطوير
Ford's RABS or GM and DaimlerChrysler's RWAL; control both rear wheels at the same time Rear Anti-Lock Brake System RABS Brakes
نظام خاص بشركة فورد للتحكم في منع غلق العجلات الخلفية في نفس الوقت نظام منع غلق العجلات الخلفية
It is the SI unit of rotational speed (angular velocity), commonly denoted by the Greek letter ω (omega). The radian per second is also the unit of angular frequency. The radian per second is defined as the change in the orientation of an object, in radians, every second. 1 rad/s = 60/2π rpm exactly = 9.55 rpm approx. 1 rad/s = 1/2π Hz exactly = 0.159 Hz approx radian per second rad/sec Units
زاوية دائرة / ثانية
The microprocessor can both read and write data to each memory location Random Access Memory RAM
ذاكرة التعامل
RC is the number of minutes a fully charged battery at 80 degrees F (26.7 degrees C) can be discharged at 25 amps until the voltage falls below 10.5 volts Reserve Capacity RC
القدرة الإحتياطية
Remotely controlled racing cars Remotely Controlled RC, R/C Control
التحكم عن بعد
RCCI relies on the blending of two fuels, each with different ignition-reactivity characteristics, early in the combustion cycle. The port injection of the gasoline fuel (which has lower reactivity) promotes air/fuel mixing before the higher-reactivity diesel fuel is injected directly into the combustion chamber for autoignition. Natural gas and ethanol are also being investigated as alternatives to gasoline. By changing the injection timing and quantities of both fuel, optimal combustion can be achieved at many engine operation conditions. The dual-fuel strategy required the installation of a second fuel tank, fuel pump, injectors, and related components Reactively Controlled Compression Ignition RCCI Ignition Control
إشعال بالضغط متحكم فيه لخليط وقود مختلف الخواص بالنسبة للإشعال
It is a pneumatic vehicle tire that is designed to resist the effects of deflation when punctured, and to enable the vehicle to continue to be driven at reduced speeds for limited distances Run Flat Tire RFT Tire
هو إطار مصمم لمقاومة تأثير انخفاض ضغط الهواء داخله في حالة ثقب الإطار, ويمكن استمرار السير عليه بسرعات مخفضة لمسافات محدودة إطار يمكن السير عليه بدون نفخ
It is the ratio of the partial pressure of water vapor in an air-water mixture to the saturated vapor pressure of water at a prescribed temperature. The relative humidity of air depends not only on temperature but also on the pressure of the system of interes Relative Humidity RH
الرطوبة النسبية
right-hand drive is a driving system in which the steering wheel is on the right side. Cars with right-hand drive are designed to be driven in countries where people drive on the left side of the road Right-Hand Drive RHD